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Important role the Herb Vendors play in Indian Traditional Healing

Excerpts from my Jungle Diaries (April 2012 onwards) Part-7

(In continuation of Part-6

“You are right, continuous travelling is harmful to health. But we are doing it since generations Earlier our ancerstors were travelling on foot but now we travel by bus and public taxis. Our many Healers friends are in remote villages far from modern communication systems. To supply herbs to them we have to travel continuously round the year. We prefer to attend weekly village markets where Healers of surrounding areas visit.” I was interacting with the Herb Vendor of North India.

He was with lots of Himalayan herbs. The Traditional Healers of Central and South India depend on these Herb Vendors for supply of Himalayan Herbs. These vendors play vital role in Indian Traditional Healing. Although they are Herb Vendors by profession but in my view they are not less than the expert Traditional Healers. They meet the Healers of different parts of India and in this process their knowledge enriches many folds. I have interacted with thousands of Herb Vendors and always learnt much from them.

Few years back I requested the Herb Vendors from Haridwar to bring the medicinal plants growing in world famous Valley of Flowers. Next year they visited to Chhattisgarh not only with the valuable medicinal plants of Valley but also with important Traditional medicinal knowledge associated with it. Without any delay I arranged meeting of small group of Traditional Healers. The vendors demonstrated the plants and Healers gained new knowledge. In exchange a representative from Healers informed about rare wild Mushroom growing in Chhattisgarh forest to the vendors. I interacted with the Herb Vendors for many days and compared the knowledge furnished by them with the knowledge present in my database on Valley of Flowers. When I searched the reference literature for many of important Formulations I found nothing. It means the workers working in the area have yet not documented it. I decided to publish it through my home page without any delay.

The Healers attending the meeting kept the plant samples safely for use on their patients. Many of them decided to try it with the local herbs with similar medicinal properties. Similarly the Herb Vendors travelled to their homeland with Medicinal Mushrooms of Chhattisgarh Forest. They experimented with it and also gave it to the Healers of their areas. Next year when they met again they shared lots of new information with each other. I was fortunate to be a part of this important interaction.

“Where is the sacred pond?” It was voice of Herb Vendor of Orissa. He was standing near famous twin ponds of Aarang city in Chhattisgarh near Rasni with other Herb Vendors. Not only the Herb Vendors but also the Traditional Healers of Orissa consider these twin ponds as sacred ponds. When they travel to Chhattisgarh on foot they stay in shade of Pipal tree and take bath in Rasni ponds. The Traditional Healers of Chhattisgarh are also aware of these ponds. They consider its water beneficial for patients suffering from skin diseases. These ponds are perennial and this is the reason the patients reach to it round the year. Many Healers collect its water and use it for preparation of medicines. For collection they travel long distance.

Highway was dividing it in two parts. One at left and other at right side. Now after formation of new state Chhattisgarh the capital city Raipur is expanding like wild fire. In place of high way six lane roads were planned and ignoring the importance of Rasni ponds the planners ordered to fill it with mud. The Herb Vendors visiting from Orissa was not aware of it. They cried a lot when they failed to locate their sacred ponds.

In India there are thousands of such sacred ponds and forest. I am trying to put in large map with its importance so that the world community can come forward to protect it. In past decade we have lost hundreds of such sacred spots. It affected the Traditional Healing a lot. The incidence of Rasni ponds made the Herb Vendors sad. Many of them decided not to visit the area again. Their decision will affect the practice of Traditional Healers depends on them.

In year 1996 I interacted with the Herb Vendors of Nepal. They were at Amarkantak for supply of herbs. I found large number of Medicinal Orchids with them. They shared a lot of information about its medicinal uses but less than the information available in my database. I presented them printouts of my work on Medicinal Orchids. Also arranged meeting with some of the Traditional Orchid Experts. We visited to nearby Achanakmar Forest for Medicinal Orchids. In Traditional Healing of Central India Vanda and Dendrobium are among most popular Medicinal Orchids. Both are added in hundreds of Formulations and most of the Formulations are considered incomplete without it. Much work has been done of Medicinal Orchids around the world but still the world community is not aware of Medicinal Orchids and millions of Formulations based on it. Very few Formulations are under trial in research labs and in process of becoming new Global products. I always encourage young researchers to conduct research on Medicinal Orchids but due to lack of reported works they hesitate to enter in this important field.

In India Medicinal Orchids are associated with Faith Healing also. In the famous Black Magic rituals different Orchids are used frequently. There is round the year demand of these Orchids in India and the users purchase it through Tantriks at fairly high prices. These Orchids are collected by the Herb Collectors at low price. I have documented the Traditional Knowledge as well as modern practices. But I have noted that due to Black Magic market the natural population of Medicinal Orchid is in danger. It is affecting the Traditional Healing. The Healers are not getting  desired species in bulk. The Healers are angry with this exploitation.

“One can use other herbs available in abundance for Black Magic. Why they are collecting and destroying Mother Nature’s Gift for earning wealth? One Medicinal Orchid in form of Herbal Formulation can save tens of lives and provide relief to patients at last stage of cancer and associated diseases. It must be stopped.” They say with much anger.

They are right in their stand. The Tantriks support their stand with many arguments. “It protects from evil spirits, provide relief from mental stress and used for over hundreds of Tantrik ceremonies. We are also using it for the common people.”

In this growing conflict I see an important role of young entrepreneurs. They must come forward to grow the most wanted Medicinal Orchids in nurseries so that both Healers and Tantriks can get the desired species without affecting the natural population. When I put this plan among the Tantriks they accepted it but with the Traditional Healers there are some restrictions. They never prefer cultivated species. They only prefer species from Mother Nature’s Experimental Fields. I feel that the young researchers can convince them in near future that Orchid raised in nursery are equally useful than wild orchids. For that the researchers have to do a lot of experimentation. The senior Healers of Bastar reacted that if they get Orchid with little less medicinal properties then they will add other ingredients in order to make the Formulation strong enough. Although not all the Healers are at present in agreement with them but I see it as a ray of hope.

In India many Orchid nurseries exist but none of them is working on Medicinal Orchids. The Tantriks as well as Healers are not aware of their existence. The Nursery owners are working for the markets in Metros where Orchids are used for decoration. They use technical terms for Orchids. For example they can supply Vanda but not Kaua Godi. In fact both are names for same species. Kaua Godi is local name of Vanda in Chhatisgarh Plains, It is not known to the Nursery owners and the Healers are not aware of word Vanda.

While interacting with the famous Orchid Grower of North-East I shared Traditional Allelopathic Knowledge through which Medicinal Orchids are enriched with desired medicinal properties before collection. The grower took keen interest in it.

“We can take patents for these Formulations.” He said.

“No, it is well documented knowledge and practiced by Traditional Healers of India. There is no need for patents. Think in positive way and work with the Traditional Healers having expertise on it and share profit with them as your business partner. It is only possible way also.” I said in hard words. He understood and assured that very soon he will start work on this aspect.

I promise that I will act as bridge between Medicinal Orchid growers and Tantriks but again the Herb Vendors will play the key role. In their long journey they meet and interact with thousands of Traditional Healers and Tantriks. They can communicate more strongly and efficiently.

“Take leaves of Mechha Kand, Jagmandal Kand, Chhuria Kand, Pahadi Telia Kand and Kath Pipal roots and dip it in sacred water of Indravati river for one night. Next morning we will visit to Tendu Trees loaded with Medicinal Orchids. At first we worship it and then take permission for collection. We will collect few orchids from one Tree not all. We will go there after taking bath in minimal cloths and please keep your mobiles aside. May be some orchids are in deep sleep. After collection we will apply the herbal solution in injured plants. As you know the orchid collection process affects both Orchid and the host plant i.e. Tendu Tree in this case. The Herbal Solution will remove the “Pain” and also help in healing the wound.” The Healers of Southern Chhattisgarh were giving instruction to me and their followers ready to collect the Medicinal Orchids for preparation of Herbal Formulations.   

(Medicinal Orchids on Tendu Tree. Picture by Pankaj Oudhia)

During my recent visit to Gwalior region I met a group of Herb Vendors from South India. We were waiting to meet the Traditional Healer having expertise in treatment of Diabetes. There was long queue of patients and others. We were standing under sun in road. I pointed to the obnoxious weed Parthenium hysterophrous growing in wasteland.

“What is this plant Are you aware of its medicinal uses?” I asked intentionally.

“No, we are not aware of its medicinal uses. In our area the authorities have declared it as Allergy weed and they uproot it time to time.” They replied.

 “Yes, you are right that it is Allergy causing plant but all parts are not harmful. The Traditional Healers of Chhattisgarh at first tried to use it in their Formulations. Now they are using it in their day today practice. Although the number of such Healers is less but through mouth publicity this new finding is spreading fastly. They know about its toxicity and like other toxic herbs they treat it before using it in their Formulations.” I disclosed.

 The Vendors were in great surprise. One of them uprooted the plant and then others started looking at it like miraculous plant.

“Don’t uproot it in this way. Millions of Trichomes present on stem may cause Allergy. These Trichomes are full of Allergens. Best way is to use hand gloves before uprooting it. In rural areas natives apply Mustard oil on hands and then uproot it. During uprooting avoid taking deep breathe as Parthenium pollens are Allergic. It may cause mental depression and permanent disfigurement of face. The authorities in your area are right but its judicial and safe use can establish it as useful plant.” I explained.

“Let’s forget the Healer and discuss on the use of this plant. Tell us everything about it and in return we will tell about uses of Medicinal Insects.” They proposed and I accepted the meaningful offer of knowledge sharing. We came out from queue and started discussion on Parthenium utilization.

 “I am describing the simple technique for removing toxicity with the help of wasteland plants present in surroundings. Our Healers use forest herbs. The forest herbs are not present here so I am informing about the methods. You can try it after getting the forest herbs.” I started explaining the method.

 In Chhattisgarh when Parthenium roots are used for skin diseases the Traditional Healers dip it in cow urine for 24 hours, after that the roots are washed thoroughly and again dipped in herbal solution. Common weeds like Sida, Celosia and Ipomoea etc. are used for preparation of solution. After 24 hours of dipping the roots are washed and dried in sun. Now the process is considered complete. The powdered roots are used in different Herbal Formulations. The Healers have yet not started using it as single herb for treatment. They are adding it as secondary as well as tertiary ingredients in promising Formulations. Through the interactions with the Traditional Healers I have collected information about over 55 such Toxicity removing Treatments. None of these methods is available in published form.   

The Herb Vendors noted every detail and thanked me. After it they started showing dried samples of Medicinal Insects. I identified most of the samples. They shared the knowledge about its uses. The information was not new for me. It was just like revision.

Recently I was invited to Maisuru for guest lecture on Parthenium. I delivered lecture on Medicinal uses of Parthenium. I described the methods of purification adopted by the Healers of Chhattisgarh and about selected Formulations in which Parthenium is used as medicine. After lecture one of the participants approached to me and said that one of the methods I was talking about is practiced by some people in his area. It generated interest in me and I requested him to arrange visit to that place on my expenses. He got ready. After two hours He approached to me again with waiting phone call.

“Sir, please talk to these people. They are practicing this knowledge. They understand your language.” He said.

After formal interaction very soon they recognized me. They were from the group of Herb Vendors I met in Gwalior in front of Traditional Healer’s home. It was nice talking with them. I was happy to know that they were practicing the shared knowledge sincerely.   

When I started Ethnobotanical surveys in year 1990 I got information about herbs and Herbal Formulations the Traditional Healers of Northern Chhattisgarh use for treatment of Hydrocele both internally as well as externally. I noted that they frequently use Ama Haldi and Parsa flowers based Formulations for external application. Both herbs are used as main ingredients whereas 17 other herbs are added in the Formulation to make it complete. From year 1990 to 2012 I interacted with thousands of Herb Vendors and never missed to ask for the special comments on Ama Haldi and Parsa Flowers based Formulations. The Herb Vendors have suggested number of herbs useful with these herbs in different combinations. Initially I was having 50 Formulations based on these herbs. Now with the help of Herb Vendors the number has gone up to +3700. Ama Haldi is common name of Curcuma amada whereas Parsa is local name of Butea monosperma.

“Parsa flowers are boon for the patients with Hydrocele and you can use it both internally as well as externally. Externally use it with Jangli Haldi whereas internally with Jimikand. You will see the fast recovery of the patients.” The Herb Vendors of Jharkhand suggested me. It was valuable knowledge indeed. The Herb Vendors of Uttarakhand add Khursani Ajwain with it in order to make the external application more promising. The Healers of Chhattisgarh are not aware of it. When I presented them this Khursani Ajwain based Formulation they tried but later due to non-availability of this herb they returned back to their original Formulations.

(Butea Flower. Picture by Pankaj Oudhia)

Here is list of medicinal plants about which I collected valuable Traditional Medicinal Knowledge from the Herb Vendors of India and Neighbouring countires.

Sirhookera latifolia (Wight) Kuntze

Smithsonia maculata (Dalz.) Saldanha

Spathoglottis plicata Blume

Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames var. sinensis

Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames var. wightiana Lindl.

Taeniophyllum alwisii Lindl.

Tainia bicornis (lIndl.) Reichb

Thelasis pygmaea (Griff.) Lindl.

Thrixspermum muscaeflorum A. S. Rao & Joseph var. nilagiricum Joseph & Vajravelu

Trias stocksii Benth ex Hook

Trichoglottis tenera (Lindl.) Schltr.

Tropidia angulosa (lindl.) Blume

Tropidia curculigoides Lindl.

Vanda spathulata (L.) Spreng.

Vanda tessellata (Roxb.) Hook ex. G. Don

Vanda testaceae (Lindl.) Reichb

Vanda wightii Reichb.

Vanilla planifolia Andrews

Vanilla walkeriae Wight

Vanilla wightiana Lindl.

Zeuxine affinis (Lindl.) Benth.ex. Hook.f.

Zeuxine gracilis (Breda) Blume

Zeuxine longilabris (Lindl.) Benth ex Hook.

Alpinia abundiflora Burtt & Smith

Alpinia calcarata Roscoe

Alpinia galanga Sw.

Alpinia malaccensis (Burm.f.) Roscoe

Alpinia nigra (Gaertn.) B. L. Brutt

Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B. L. Burtt & R. M.Sm.

Amomum cannicarpum (Wight) Benth. ex Baker

Amomum hypoleucum Thw.

Amomum masticatorium Thwaites

Amomum muricatum Bedd.

Amomum pterocarpum Thw.

Curcuma amada Roxb.

Curcuma aromatica Salisb.

Curcuma longa L.

Curcuma montana Roxb.

Curcuma neilgherrensis Wight

Curcuma pseudomontana Graham

Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe

Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton var. cardamomum

Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton var. major Thw.

Globba marantina L.

Globba ophioglossa Wight

Hedychium coronarium Koen.

Hedychium flavescens Carey ex Roscoe

Hedychium spicatum Hamilton ex Smith var. acuminatum ( Roscoe) Wall.

Hedychium venustum Wight

Kaempferia galanga L.

Zingiber montanum (K. D. Koenig) Link ex Dietr.

Zingiber nimmonii (J. Graham) Dalzell

Zingiber officinale Roscoe

Zingiber roseum (Roxb.) Roscoe

Zingiber wightianum Thw.

Zingiber zerumbet (L.) J. E. Smith

Costus pictus D. Don

Costus speciosus (Koen.) J. E. Smith

Maranta arundinacea L.

Phrynium pubinerve Blume

Schumannianthus virgatus (Roxb.) Rolfe

Ensete superbum (Roxb.) Cheesman

Ensete ventricosum(Welw.) Cheesman

Heliconia psittacorum L.

Musa acuminata Colla

Musa balbisiana Colla

Musa parasidiaca L.

Ravenala madagascarensis Sonner

Strelitzia reginae Aiton

Canna indica L.

Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.

Anigozanthos flavidus DC.

Disporum leschenaultianum D. Don var. leschenaultianum

Disporum leschenaultianum D. Don var. angustifolium Fischer

Lilium trigrinum Ker-Gawl.

Lilium wallichianum Schultes & Schultes f. var. neilgherrense (Wight) Hara

Ophiopogon intermedius D. Don var. intermedius

Ophiopogon intermedius D. Don var. gracilipes Hook.f.

Ophiopogon intermedius D. Don var. pauciflorus Hook. f

Peliosanthes teta Andr. subsp. humilis (Andr.) Jessop

Aristea ecklonii Baker

Babiana stricta (Aiton) Ker Gawl.

Babiana villosa Ker Gawl.

Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (E. Morren) N. E. Br.

Crocosmia pottsii (Baker) N. E. Br.

Dierama pulcherrima (Hook. F.) Baker

Eleutherine palmifolia (L.) Merr.

Freesia refracta Klatt

Gladiolus natalensis (Eckl.) Reinw. ex Hook.

Gladiolus primulinus Baker

Iris germanica L.

Iris japonica Thunb.

Iris unguicularis Poir.

Moraea iridioides L. Mant.

Watsonia borbonica (Pourr.) Goldblatt subsp. ardernei (Sander) Goldblatt

Watsonia rosea Ker-Gawl.

Amaryllis belladonna L.

Crinum asiaticum L.

Crinum viviparum (Lam.) R.Ansari & V.J. Nair

Crinum latifolium L.

Crinum moorei Hook.

Crinum x powellii Hort. ex Baker

Eucharis x grandiflora Planch. & Linden

Eurycles sylvestris Salisb.

Haemanthus coccineus L.

Haemanthus matalensis Hook.

Hippeastrum x johnsonii (Hort.) Herb.

Hippeastrum reginae Herb.

Hippeastrum vittatum (L'Her.) Herb.

Hymenocallis littoralis (Jacq.) Salisb.

Leucojum aestivum L

Leucojum pulchellum Salisb.

Narcissus pseudo-narcissus L. subsp. moschatus (L.) Baker

Narcissus tazetta L.

Nerine flexuosa (Jacq.) Herb.

Nerine undulata Herbert

Pancratium triflorum Roxb.

Phaedranassa dubia (Kunth) J. F. Macbr.

Sprekelia formossissima Herbert

Stenomesson coccineum Herbert

Zephyranthes carinata Herbert

Zephyranthes grandiflora Lindl.

Zephyranthes tubispatha Herbert

Agave americana L.

Agave angustifolia Haw.

Agave sisalana Perrine ex Engelm

Agave vera-cruz Mill.

Cordyline australis (Forst. F.) Hook.

Furcraea foetida (L.) Haw.

Polianthes tuberosa L.

Yucca gloriosa L.

Dianella ensifolia (L.) DC.  

Phormium tenax Forst.  

Dracaena fruticosa (L.) A. Chev.

Dracaena terniflora Roxb.

Sansevieria roxburghiana Schultes & Schultes

Sansevieria trifasciata Hort. ex Prain

Sansevieria thyriflora Thunb.

Sansevieria varians N.E.Br

Sansevieria zeylanica (L.) Willd.

Alstroemeria aurea Graham

Bomarea caldasiana Herbert

Bomarea oligantha Baker

Curculigo orchioides Gaertn

Hypoxis aurea Lour.

Molineria trichocarpa (Wight) Balakr.

Tacca leontopetaloides (L.) Kuntze

Dioscorea alata L.

Dioscorea belophylla Voigt.

Dioscorea bulbifera L.

Dioscorea esculenta (Lour.) Burkill

Dioscorea hamiltonii Hook.

Dioscorea hispida Dennst.

Dioscorea kalkapershadii Prain & Burkill

Dioscorea oppositifolia L. var. oppositifolia

Dioscorea oppositifolia L. var. dukhumensis Prain & Burkill

Dioscorea pentaphylla L.

Dioscorea spicata Roth

Dioscorea tomentosa Koen ex Spreng

Dioscorea wallichii Hook

Dioscorea wightii Hook

Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn.

Stemona tuberosa Lour.

Dipcadi montanum (Dalz.) Baker var. madrasicum (Barnes & Fischer) Deb & Dasgupta

Eucomis autumnalis (Miller) Chitt.

Eucomis punctata L'Herit.

Ornithogalum arabicum L.

Ornithogalum conicum Jacq.

Scilla hyacinthina (Roth) Mecbr. 

Urginea congesta Wight

Urginea indica (Roxb.) Kunth

Urginea polyantha Blatter & Mc Cann

Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav.

Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f.

Kniphofia uvaria (L.) Hook. 

Asparagus asiaticus L.

Asparagus fysonii Macbr.

Asparagus gonoclados Baker

Asparagus laevissimus Steud. ex Baker

Asparagus officinalis L.

Asparagus setaceus (Kunth) Jessop

Asparagus racemosus Willd.

Chlorophytum acaule Baker

Chlorophytum arundinaceum Baker  

Chlorophytum attenuatum (Wight) Baker

Chlorophytum heynei Rottl. ex Baker

Chlorophytum laxum R. Br.

Chlorophytum malabaricum Baker

Chlorophytum nimmonii (Graham) Dalz.

Chlorophytum tuberosum (Roxb.) Baker

Gloriosa rothschildiana O'Brien

Gloriosa superba L. 

Iphigenia indica (L.) A. Gray ex Kunth

Iphigenia magnifica  Ansari & R. S. Rao

Hemerocallis aurantiaca Baker 

Agapanthus praecox Willd. var. orientalis (F. Leight.) F. Leight.

Agapanthus praecox Willd.  var. albus Hort.

Allium cepa L.

Allium porrum L.

Allium sativum L.

Ruscus aculeatus L.

Smilax aspera L.

Smilax perfoliata Lour.

Smilax wightii A. DC

Smilax zeylanica L.

Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laub.

Monochoria hastata (L.) Solms-Laub.

Monochoria vaginalis (Burm. F.) Presl

Xyris capensis Thunb. var. schoenoides (Mart) Nilsson

Xyris pauciflora Willd.

Aclisia secundiflora (Blume) Bakh.

Aneilema montana (Wight) Clarke

Aneilema ovalifolia (Wight) Hook

Belosynapsis kewensis Hassk.

Belosynapsis vivipara (Dalz.) Fischer

Commelina attenuata Koen var. Vahl

Commelina benghalensis L.

Commelina clavata Clarke

Commelina diffusa Burm

Commelina ensifolia R. Br.

Commelina erecta L. var. erecta

Commelina erecta L. var. glochidea (Koen.ex Clarke) Bhargavan

Commelina forskalaei Vahl.

Commelina hirsuta (Wight) Clarke

Commelina imberbis Ehrenb. ex Hassk.

Commelina indehiscens Barnes

Commelina longifolia Lam.

Commelina paleata Hassk.

Commelina paludosa Blume

Commelina subulata Roth

Commelina tricolor Barnes

Commelina wightii R. Rao

Cyanotis adscendens Dalz.

Cyanotis arachnoidea Clarke var. arachnoidea

Cyanotis arachnoidea Clarke var. thwaitesii (Hassk.) R. Rao & Kammathy

Cyanotis arcotensis R. Rao

Cyanotis axillaris (L.) D. Don

Cyanotis burmanniana Wight

Cyanotis concanensis Hassk.

Cyanotis cristata (L.) D. Don

Cyanotis cucullata (Roth) Kuntze

Cyanotis fasciculata (Heyne ex Roth) Schultes & Schultes

Cyanotis obtusa Trimen

Cyanotis papilionacea (L.) Schultes & Schultes

Cyanotis pilosa Schultes & Schultes

Cyanotis tuberosa (Roxb.) Schultes & Schultes

Cyanotis villosa (Spreng.) Schultes & Schultes

Cyanotis wightii Clarke

Dictyospermum scaberrimum (Blumes) Morton ex Hara et al.

Floscopa scandens Lour.

Murdannia dimorpha (Dalz.) Brueckner

Murdannia edulis (Stokes) Faden

Murdannia esculenta (Wall ex Clarke) Raizada ex R. Rao & Kammathy

Mudannia gigantea (Vahl.) Brueckner

Murdannia glauca (Thw. ex Clarke) Brueckner

Murdannia japonica (Thunb.) Faden

Murdannia juncoides (Wight) R. Rao & Kammathy

Murdannia lanceolata (Wight) Kammathy

Murdannia lanuginosa (Wall ex Clarke) Beueckner

Murdannia loriformis (Hassk.) R. Rao & Kammathy

Murdannia nudiflora (L.) Brenan

Murdannia pauciflora Brueckner

Murdannia semiteres (Dalz.) Sant.

Murdannia simplex (Vahl.) Brenan

Murdannia spirata (L.) Brueckner

Murdannia vaginata (L.) Brueckner

Murdannia zeylanica (Clarke) Brueckner var. longiscapa (Clarke) R. Rao & Kammathy

Rhoeo discolor Hance

Setcreasea purpurea Boom

Zebrina pendula Schnitzl.

Flagellaria indica L.

Juncus bufonius L.

Juncus effusus L.

Juncus inflexus L.

Juncus leschenaultii J. Gay

Luzula indica Kirschner

Areca catechu L.

Arenga wightii Griff.

Bentinckia condapanna Berry ex Roxb.

Borassus flabellifer L.

Calamus brandisii Beccari ex Beccari & Hook

Calamus gamblei Beccari ex Becari & Hook. var. gamblei

Calamus gamblei Beccari ex Beccari & Hook. var. sphaerocarpa Beccari ex Fischer

Calamus huegelianus Mart.

Calamus pseudo-tenuis Beccari ex Beccari & Hook

Calamus rheedii Griff

Calamus rotang L.

Calamus travancoricus L.

Caryota urens L.

Cocos nucifera L.

Corypha umbraculifera L.

Corypha macropoda

Livistona chinensis (Jacq.) R. Br.

Livistona rotundifolia (Lam.) Mart.

Phoenix canariensis Hort ex Chabaud

Phoenix loureirii Kunth var. loureirii

Phoenix loureirii Kunth var. humilis (Becc.) S.C. Barrow

Phoenix pusilla Gaertn

Phoenix rupicola L.

Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb.

Pinanga dicksonii (Roxb.) Blume

Rhapis excelsa (Thunb.) A. Henry ex Rehder

Roystonea regia (Kunth) O. F. Cook

Sabal mauritiiformis (Karsten) Griseb.

Trachycarpus fortunei (Hook.) Wendl.

Washingtonia robusta Wendl.

Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.

Pandanus canaranus Warb.

Pandanus odoratissimus L.f.

Pandanus tectorius  Parkinson

Pandanus thwaitesii Martelli

Typha angustifolia L.

Acorus calamus L

Alocasia indica (Roxb.) Schott

Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson var. campanulatus (Blume ex Decne) Sivadasan

Amorphophallus sylvaticus (Roxb.) Kunth

Anaphyllum beddomei Engler

Anaphyllum wightii Schott

Anthurium spathiphyllum N. E. Br.

Arisaema auriculatum Barnes

Arisaema barnesii Fischer

Arisaema leschenaultii Blume

Arisaema murrayi (Graham) Hook.

Arisaema tortuosum (Wall.) Schott

Arisaema translucens Fischer

Arisaema tuberculatum Fischer

Arisaema tylophorum Fischer

Arisaema wightii Schott

Caladium bicolor (Ait.) Vent.

Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott

Cryptocoryne ciliata (Roxb.) Schott

Cryptocoryne consobrina Schott

Cryptocoryne retrospiralis (Roxb.) Kunth.

Cryptocoryne spiralis (Retz.) Fischer

Epipremnum pinnatum cv aureum

Lagenandra meeboldii (Engler) Fischer

Lagenandra toxicaria Dalz. var. barnesii Fischer

Monstera deliciosa Liebm.

Pistia stratiotes L.

Plesmonium margaritiferum (Roxb.) Schott

Pothos armatus Fischer

Pothos scandens L.

Pothos thomsonianus Schott.

Remusatia vivipara (Lodd.) Schott

Rhaphidophora pertusa (Roxb.) Schott

Theriophonum fischeri Sivadasan

Theriophonum minutum (Willd.) Baillon

Theriophonum sivaganganum (Ramam. & Sebastine) Bogner

Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott

Zantedeschia aethiopica (L.) Spreng.

Lemna gibba L.

Lemna perpusilla Torrey

Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleiden

Wolffia globosa (Roxb.) Hartog & Vander Plas

Hyalisma janthina Champ.

Caldesia parnassiifolia (L.) Parl.

Limnophyton obtusifolium (L.) Miq.

Sagittaria guayanensis H.B.K. subsp lappula (D Don) Bogin

Sagittaria sagittifolia L.

Najas graminea Del.

Najas indica (Willd.) Cham.

Najas malesiana Wilde

Najas marina L.

Najas minor All.

Ruppia maritima L.

Aponogeton appendiculatus Bruggen

Aponogeton echinatus Roxb.

Aponogeton natans (L.) Engler

Aponogeton undulatus Roxb.

Cymodocea rotundata Ehrenb. & Hempr. ex Asch.

Cymodocea serrulata (R. Br.) Asch. & Magnus

Halodule pinifolia (Miki) Hartog

Halodule uninervis (Forssk.) Asch.

Halodule wrightii Asch.

Potamogeton crispus L.

Potamogeton nodosus Poir.

Potamogeton pectinatus L.

Potamogeton perfoliatus L.

Syringodium isoetifolium (Asch.) Dandy

Eriocaulon brownianum Martius ex Wall.

Eriocaulon cinereum R. Br.

Eriocaulon conica (Fyson) Fischer

Eriocaulon elenorae Fyson

Eriocaulon ensiforme Fischer

Eriocaulon leucomelas Steud.

Eriocaulon longicuspis Hook. f.

Eriocaulon nairii Chandrabose & Chandrasekaran

Eriocaulon nepalense Prescott ex Bongard

Eriocaulon odoratum Dalz.

Eriocaulon panagudianum Ansari & Balakr.

Eriocaulon pectinatum Ruhl.

Eriocaulon quinquangulare L.

Eriocaulon ramnadense Ansari & Balakr.

Eriocaulon richardianum (Fyson) Ansari & Balakr.

Eriocaulon ritchieanum Ruchl.

Eriocaulon robusto-brownianum Ruhland

Eriocaulon robustum Steud.

Eriocaulon talbotii Ansari & Balakr.

Eriocaulon thwaitesii Koern.

Eriocaulon truncatum Buch. - Ham. ex Mart.

Eriocaulon xeranthemum Mart.

Ascopholis gamblei Fischer

Bulbostylis barbata (Rottb.) Clarke

Bulbostylis densa (Wall.) Hand.-Mazz.

Bulbostylis puberula (Poir.) Kunth ex C. B. Clarke var. puberula

Bulbostylis puberula (Poir.) Kunth ex C. B. Clarke var. gracilis C. Fischer

Carex baccans Nees

Carex breviculmis R. Br.

Carex brunnea Thunb.

Carex christii Boeckeler

Carex eluta Nelmes

Carex foliosa D.Don

Carex filicina Nees

Carex glaucina Boeckeler

Carex hebecarpa C. Meyer var. ligulata (Nees) Kuek.

Carex lateralis Kuek.

Carex lenta D. Don

Carex leucantha Arn. ex Boott

Carex lindleyana Nees  var. lindleyana

Carex lindleyana Nees var. mercarensis (Hochst. ex Steud.) Fischer

Carex longicruris Nees

Carex longipes D. Don var. longipes

Carex longipes D. Don var. dissitiflora Clarke

Carex maculata Boott

Carex myosurus Nees

Carex nubigena D. Don

Carex phacota Spreng.

Carex pseudoaperta Boeckeler ex Kuek.

Carex raphidocarpa Nees

Carex rara Boott

Carex speciosa Kunth

Carex vicinalis Boott

Carex walkeri Arn. ex Boott

Carex wallichiana Spreng.

Carex wightiana Nees

Cyperus alopecuroides Rottb.

Cyperus alternifolius L. subsp. flabelliformis (Rottboell) Kukenth.

Cyperus arenarius Retz.

Cyperus articulatus L.

Cyperus bulbosus Vahl

Cyperus castaneus Willd.

Cyperus cephalotes Vahl

Cyperus  conglomeratus Rottb. subsp. pachyrrhizus (Nees ex Boeck.) T. Koyama

Cyperus compressus L.

Cyperus corymbosus Rottb.

Cyperus curvibracteatus Govindarajalu

Cyperus cuspidatus Kunth

Cyperus difformis L.

Cyperus diffusus Vahl. var. diffusus

Cyperus diffusus Vahl. var. macrostachyus Boeckeler

Cyperus digitatus Roxb.

Cyperus distans L.

Cyperus distans L. var. pseudonutans Kuek.

Cyperus elatus L.

Cyperus esculentus L.

Cyperus exaltatus Retz.

Cyperus halpan L.

Cyperus imbricatus Retz.

Cyperus iria L.

Cyperus laevigatus L.

Cyperus latovaginata Govindarajalu

Cyperus lurida Govindarajalu

Cyperus michelianus (L.) Link. subsp. pygmaeus (Rottb.) Asch. & Graebn

Cyperus nutans Vahl var. nutans

Cyperus natans Vahl var. eleusinoides (Kunth) Haines

Cyperus pangorei Rottb.

Cyperus pilosus Vahl

Cyperus platyphyllus Roem. & Schultes

Cyperus platystylis R. Br.

Cyperus plumbeonucea Govindarajalu

Cyperus polyanthelus Govindarajalu

Cyperus procerus Rottb.

Cyperus pygmaeus Rottb.

Cyperus rotundus L. subsp. rotundus

Cyperus rotundus L. subsp. tuberosus (Rottb.) Kuek.

Cyperus rubicundus Vahl

Cyperus rubriglumosus Govindarajalu

Cyperus sesquifforus (Torr.) Mattf. & Kuek. var.cylindricus (Nees) Kuek.

Cyperus sphacelatus Rottb.

Cyperus stoloniferous Retz.

Cyperus stricticulmis Govindarajalu

Cyperus sulcinux Clarke

Cyperus tenuiculmis Boeckeler

Cyperus tenuispica Steud.

Eleocharis acutangula (Roxb.) Schultes

Eleocharis atropurpurea (Retz.) Presl.

Eleocharis congesta D. Don

Eleocharis dulcis (Burm.f.) Henschel

Eleocharis geniculata (L.) Roem. & Schultes

Eleocharis retroflexa (Poir.) Urban subsp. chaetaria (Roem. & Schult.) Koyama

Eleocharis spiralis (Rottb.) Roem. & Schultes

Eleocharis tetraquetra Nees

Fimbristylis aestivalis (Retz.) Vahl

Fimbristylis aggregata Fischer

Fimbristylis amplocarpa Govindarajalu

Fimbristylis aphylla Steud.

Fimbristylis argentea (Rottb.) Vahl

Fimbristylis bisumbellata (Forssk.) Bubani

Fimbristylis cinnamometorum (Vahl) Kunth

Fimbristylis complanata (Retz.) Link

Fimbristylis consanguinea Kunth

Fimbristylis contorta Fischer

Fimbristylis crystallina Govindarajalu

Fimbristylis cymosa R. Br. subsp. spathacea (Roth) T. Koyama

Fimbristylis dichotoma (L.) Vahl subsp. dichotoma

Fimbristylis dichotoma (L.) Vahl subsp. podocarpa (Nees & Meyen) Koyama

Fimbristylis dichotoma (L.) Vahl subsp. glauca (Vahl) Koyama

Fimbristylis dipsacea (Rottb.) Clarke

Fimbristylis eragrostis (Nees & Meyen ex Nees) Hance

Fimbristylis falcata (Vahl.) Kunth

Fimbristylis ferruginea (L.) Vahl

Fimbristylis kingii Clarke

Fimbristylis latiglumifera Govindarajalu

Fimbristylis latinucifera Govindarajalu

Fimbristylis longistigmata Govindarajalu

Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) Vahl

Fimbristylis monospicula Govindarajalu

Fimbristylis monticola Hochst. ex Steud.

Fimbristylis narayanii Fischer

Fimbristylis nutans (Retz.) Vahl

Fimbristylis ovata (Burm. F.) Kern

Fimbristylis paupercula Boeckeler

Fimbristylis pentaptera (Nees) Kunth

Fimbristylis pierotii Miq.

Fimbristylis polytrichoides (Retz.) R. Br.

Fimbristylis pustulosa Govindarajalu

Fimbristylis quinquangularis (Vahl) Kunth var. crassa C. B. Clarke

Fimbristylis rectifolia Govindarajalu

Fimbristylis rigidiuscula Govindarajalu

Fimbristylis rugosa Govindarajalu

Fimbristylis salbundia (Nees) Kunth

Fimbristylis scabrisquama Govindarajalu

Fimbristylis schoenoides (Retz.) Vahl

Fimbristylis semidisticha Govindarajalu

Fimbristylis sieberiana Kunth

Fimbristylis squarrosa Vahl var. esquarrosa Makino

Fimbristylis strigosa Govindarajalu

Fimbristylis tenera Roem. & Schultes

Fimbristylis tetragona R. Br.

Fimbristylis tortifolia Govindarajalu

Fimbristylis triflora (L.) Schum. ex Engler

Fimbristylis tristachya R. Br.

Fimbristylis uliginosa Hochst. ex Steud

Fimbristylis woodrowii Clarke

Fuirena ciliaris (L.) Roxb.

Fuirena pubescens (Lam.) Kunth var. pergamentacea Fischer

Fuirena trilobites Clarke

Fuirena umbellata Rottb.

Fuirena unicinata (Willd.) Kunth

Fuirena wallichiana Kunth

Hypolytrum nemorum (Vahl) Spreng

Kylinga brevifolius Rottboell

Kylinga bulbosa P. Beavu.

Kylinga hyalina (Vahl) T. Koyama

Kyllingia nemoralis ( J. R. & G. Forst.) Dandy ex Hutchinson & Dalziel

Kyllingia malanosperma Nees

Lipocarpha chinensis (Osbeck.) Kern

Lipocarpha raynaleana Govindarajalu

Lipocarpha sphacelata (Vahl.) Kunth

Mariscus clarkei (Cooke) T. Koyama

Mariscus compactus (Retz.) Bolding

Mariscus cyperinus (Retz.) Vahl

Mariscus dubius (Rottboell) Kukenth ex C.E.C. Fischer

Mariscus paniceus (Rottboell.) Vahl

Mariscus squarrosus (L.) Clarke

Mariscus sumaterensis (Retz.) A. Raynal

Pycreus flavescens L.

Pycreus flavidus (Retz.) T. Koyama

Pycreus polystachyos (Rottboell) Beauv.

Pycreus pumilus (L.) Nees ex Clarke

Pycreus puncticulatus (Vahl) Nees

Pycreus sanguinolentus (Vahl) Nees

Pycreus stramineus (Nees) Clarke

Pycreus unioloides (R. Br.) Urb. var. angulatus (Nees) Domin.

Rhynchospora corymbosa (L.) Britton

Rhynchospora gracillima Thw.

Rhynchospora rubra (Lour.) Makino

Rhynchospora rugosa (Vahl.) Gale

Rikliella squarrous (L.) Raynal

Schoenoplectus articulatus (L.) Palla

Schoenoplectus grossus (L. f.) Palla

Schoenoplectus juncoides (Roxb) Palla

Schoenoplectus littoralis (Schrad.) Palla subsp. subulatus (Vahl)  Koyama

Schoenoplectus mucronatus (L.) Palla

Schoenoplectus senegalensis (Steud.) Palla ex Raynal

Schoenoplectus  supinus (L.) Palla subsp. lateriflorus (Gmel.) Koyama

Scirpus fluitans L.

Scirpus maritimus L.

Scirpus subcapitatus Thw.

Scleria caricnia (R. Br.) Benth

Scleria corymbosa Roxb.

Scleria lithosperma (L.) Sw. var. lithosperma

Scleria lithosperma (L.) Sw. var. linearis Benth

Scleria lithosperma (L.) Sw. var. multispiculata Govindarajalu

Scleria levis Retz.

Scleria mikawana Makino

Scleria parvula Steud.

Scleria terrestris (L.) Fassett

Acrachne henrardiana (Bor) Phillips

Acrachne racemosa (Heyne ex Roth) Ohwi

Acrachne sundararajii Umamahesw. et al

Aeluropus lagopoides (L.) Trin ex Thw.

Agrostis micrantha Stue.

Agrostis peninsularis Hook.f.

Agrostis pilosula Trin.

Agrostis schmidii (Hook. f.) Fischer

Agrostis stolonifera L.

Agrostis zenkeri Trin.

Alloteropsis cimicina (L.) Stapf

Andropogon hallii Hack.

Andropogon lividus Thw.

Andropogon longipes Hack.

Andropogon polyptychus Steud.

Andropogon pumilus Roxb.

Anthoxanthum borii Jain & Pal

Anthoxanthum odoratum L.

Apluda mutica L.

Apocopis courtallumensis (Steud.) Henrard

Apocopis vaginata Hack.

Aristida adscensionis L.

Aristida funiculata Trin & Rupr.

Aristida hystrix L.

Aristida mutabilis Trin. & Rupr.

Aristida setacea Retz.

Arthraxon castratus (Griff.) Narayanaswami ex Bor

Arthraxon depressus Stapf ex Fischer

Arthraxon lanceolatus (Roxb.) Hochst.

Arthraxon micans (Nees) Hochst.

Arthraxon prionodes (Steud.) Dandy

Arthraxon quartinianus (A. Rich) Nash

Arundinaria walkeriana Munro

Arundinaria wightiana Nees

Arundinella ciliata (Roxb.) Nees ex Miq.

Arundinella hookeri Munro ex Keng

Arundinella leptochloa (Nees ex Steud.) Hook

Arundinella mesophylla Nees ex Steud

Arundinella nepalensis Trin.

Arundinella nervosa (Roxb.) Nees ex Hook. & Arn.

Arundinella pumila (Hochst. ex A. Rich) Steud.

Arundinella purpurea Hochst. ex Steud var. purpurea

Arundinella purpurea Hochst. ex Steud. var. laxa Bor

Arundinella setosa Trin. var. setosa

Arundinella setosa Trin. var. nilagiriana Subbarao & Kumari

Arundinella vaginata Bor

Arundo conspicua Forst.

Arundo donax L.

Avena byzantina K. Koch

Avena fatua L.

Avena sativa L.

Avena sterilis L. var. ludoviciana (Durieu) Gill & Magne

Axonopus compressus ( Sw.) P. Beauv.

Bambusa bambos Voss

Bothriochloa bladhii (Retz.) S. T. Blake

Bothriochloa foulkesii (Hook. f.) Henrard

Bothriochloa insculpta (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) A. camus

Bothriochloa kuntzeana (Hack.) Henrard

Bothriochloa pertusa (L.) A. Camus

Bothriochloa pseudoischaemum (Nees ex Steud.) Henrard

Brachiaria distachya (L.) Stapf

Brachiaria eruciformis (J. E. Smith) Griseb.

Brachiaria kurzii (Hook. f.) A. Camus

Brachiaria miliiformis (J. S. Presl) Chase

Brachiaria munae Basappa

Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf

Brachiaria nilagirica Bor

Brachiaria ramosa (L.) Stapf

Brachiaria remota (Retz.) Haines

Brachiaria reptans (L.) Gard. & Hubbard

Brachiaria Semiundulata (Hochst. ex A. Rich)

Brachiaria Semiverticillata (Rottl.) Alston

Brachiaria setigera (Retz.) Hubbard

Brachypodium distachyon (L.) P. Beauv.

Brachypodium sylvaticum (Huds.)

Briza maxima L.

Briza media L.

Briza minor L.

Bromus arvensis L.

Bromus catharticus Vahl

Bromus diandrus Roth

Bromus ramosus Huds.

Capillipedium filiculme (Hook. f.) Stapf

Capillipedium huegelii (Hack.) Camus

Capillipedium parviflorum (R. Br.) Stapf.

Cenchrus biflorus Roxb.

Cenchrus ciliaris L.

Cenchrus glaucus Mudaliar & Sundararaj

Cenchrus pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. ex Steud.

Cenchrus setigerus Vahl.

Centotheca lappacea (L.) Desv.

Chionachne koenigii (Spreng.) THw.

Chionachne Semiteres (Benth. ex Hook. f.) Henrard

Chloris barbata Sw.

Chloris bournei Rang. & Tadl.

Chloris dolichostachya Lagasca

Chloris gayana Kunth ex Stapf.

Chloris montana Roxb.

Chloris pycnothrix Trin.

Chloris roxburghiana Schultes

Chloris virgata Sw.

Chloris wightiana Nees ex Steud.

Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.) Trin.

Chrysopogon asper (Heyne ex Hook. f.) Blatter & Mc Can

Chrysopogon copei Mohanan et Ravi

Chrysopogon fulvus (Spreng) Choiv.

Chrysopogon hackelii (Hook.f.) Fischer

Chrysopogon orientalis (Desv.) A. Camus

Chrysopogon zeylanicus (Nees ex Steud.) Thw.

Coelachne perpusilla (Arn. ex Steud.) Thw. var. perpusilla

Coelachne perpusilla (Arn. ex Steud.) Thw. var. nilagirica Ved Prakash & Jain

Coelachne simpliciuscula (Wight & Arn. ex Steud) Munro ex Benth

Coelachyropsis lagopoides (Burm.f.) Bor

Coix aquatica Roxb.

Coix gigantea Koen. ex Roxb.

Coix lacryma-jobi L.

Cortaderia selloana (Schultes) Asch. & Graebn.

Cymbopogon caesius (Nees ex Hook. & Arn.)

Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf

Cymbopogon coloratus (Hook. f.) Stapf.

Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud.) Wats var. flexuosus

Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud) Wats var. coimbatorensis Gupta

Cymbopogon gidarba (Ham. ex Steud.) Haines

Cymbopogon jwarancusa (Jones) Schultes subsp. olivieri (Boiss.) Soenarko

Cymbopoogon martinii (Roxb.) Wats.

Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle var. nardus

Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle var. confertiflorus (Steud.) Stapf ex Bor

Cymbopogon polyneuros (Steud.) Stapf

Cymbopogon travancorensis Bor

Cynodon arcuatus J. S. Presl.

Cynodon barberi Rang & Tad.

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.

Cynodon plectostachyus (Schum ex Engler) Pilger

Cyrtococcum deccanense Bor

Cyrtococcum longipes (Wight & Arn. ex Hook. f.) A. Camus

Cyrtococcum muricatum (Retz.) Bor

Cyrtococcum oxyphyllum (Steud.) Stapf.

Cyrtococcum patens (L.) A. Camus

Cyrtococcum sparsicomum (Nees ex Steud.) A. Camus

Cyrtococcum trigonum (Retz.) A. Camus

Dactylis glomerata L.

Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd.

Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees

Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf

Dichanthium annulatum (Forssk.) Stapf

Dichanthium aristatum (Poir) Hubbard

Dichanthium caricosum (L.) A. Camus

Dichanthium foveolatum (Del.) Roberty

Dichanthium oliganthum (Hochst.ex Steud.) Cope

Dichanthium pallidum (Hook. f.) Stapf ex Fischer

Dichaetaria wightii Nees ex Steud.

Digitaria abludens (Roem. & Schultes) Veldk.

Digitaria bicornis (Lam.) Roem. & Schultes ex Loud.

Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler

Digitaria duthieana Henr. ex Bor                                     

Digitaria griffithii (Hook. f.) Henrard

Digitaria longiflora (Retz.) Pers.

Digitaria microbachne (Presl) Henr.

Digitaria radicosa (Presl) Miq.

Digitaria setigera Roth

Digitaria stricta Roth ex Roem. & Schultes

Digitaria ternata (A. Rich) Stapf

Digitaria tomentosa (Koen ex Willd.) Henrard

Digitaria violascens Link

Digitaria wallichiana (Wight & Arn. ex Steud.) Stapf

Dimeria acutipes Bor

Dimeria avenacea (Retz.) Fischer

Dimeria balakrishnaniana K.Ravik., P.V. Sreek. & V. Lakshmanan

Dimeria fuscescens Trin.

Dimeria kollimalayana Mohanan & Rao

Dimeria lehmanii (Nees ex Steud.) Hack.

Dimeria orissae Bor

Dimeria ornithopoda Trin. var. ornithopoda

Dimeria ornithopoda Trin. var. khasiana Bor

Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panzer

Diplachne malabarica (L.) Merr.

Echinochloa colona (L.) Link

Echinochloa crus - galli (L.) P. Beauv var. crus - galli

Echinochloa crus - galli (L.) P. Beauv var. breviseta (Doll) Neilr.

Echinochloa frumentacea Link

Echinochloa oryzoides (Ard.) Fritsch

Echinochloa picta (J. Koen) Michael

Echinochloa stagnina (Retz.) P. Beauv

Ehrharta abyssinica Hochst.

Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.

Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn

Elytrophorus spicatus (Willd.) A. Camus

Enneapogon schimperanus (Hochst. Ex A. Rich)

Enteropogon coimbatorensis K K. N. Nair, Jain & Nayar

Enteropogon monostachyos (Vahl) Schum ex Engler

Eragrostiella bifaria (Vahl) Bor

Eragrostiella brachyphylla ( Stapf.) Bor

Eragrostis aspera (Jacq.) Nees

Eragrostis atrovirens (Desf.) Trin. ex Steud.

Eragrostis cilianensis (Al.) Vign.

Eragrostis ciliaris (L.) R. Br.

Eragrostis ciliata (Roxb.) Nees

Eragrostis coarctata Stapf.

Eragrostis curvula (Schrader) Nees

Eragrostis dayanandanii P. Ravichandran, S.Krishnan, N.P. Samson

Eragrostis deccanensis Bor

Eragrostis gangetica (Roxb.) Steud.

Eragrostis japonica (Thunb.) Trin.

Eragrostis kiwuelsis Jedwabn.

Eragrostis macilenta (A. Rich) Steud.

Eragrostis maderaspatana Bor

Eragrostis minor Host

Eragrostis nigra Nees ex Steud.

Eragrostis nutans (Retz.) Nees ex Steud.

Eragrostis pilosa P. Beauv

Eragrostis riparia (Willd.) Nees

Eragrostis rottleri Stapf

Eragrostis schweinfurthii Chioe

Eragrostis superba Peyr.

Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter

Eragrostis tenella (L.) P. Beauv ex Roem. & Schultes var. tenella

Eragrostis tenella (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schultes var. insularis Hubbard

Eragrostis tenuifolia (A. Rich) Hochst.

Eragrostis tremula (Lam.) Hochst ex Steud.

Eragrostis unioloides (Retz.) Nees ex Steud.

Eragrostis viscosa (Retz.) Trin.

Eremochloa muricata (Retz.) Hack

Eremopogon foveolatus (Del.) Stapf.

Eriochloa procera (Retz.) Hubbard

Eriochrysis rangacharii Fischer

Euchlaena mexicana Fischer

Eulalia phaeothrix (Hack.) Kuntze

Eulalia trispicata (Schultes) Henrard

Eulalia wightii (Hook. f.) Bor

Eulaliopsis binata (Retz.) C.E. Hubbard

Festuca ovina L.

Festuca undata Stapf var. aristata Stapf

Garnotia arundinacea Hook

Garnotia courtallensis (Arn. & Nees) Thw.

Garnotia elata (Arn. Ex Miq.) Janowski

Garnotia exaristata Gould

Garnotia fergusonii Trimen

Garnotia schmidii Hook.

Garnotia tenella (Arn. ex Miq.) Janowski

Glyceria spicata Guss

Halopyrum mucronatum (L.) Stapf.

Helictotrichon polyneurum (Hook. f.) Henrard

Helictotrichon schmidii (Hook. f.) Henrard

Helictotrichon virescens (Nees ex Steud.) Henrard

Hemarthria compressa(L.f.) R. Br.

Heteropogon contortus (L.) P Beauv

Heteropogon fischerianus Bor

Heteropogon polystachyos (Roxb.) Schultes

Holcolemma canaliculatum (Nees ex Steud.) Stapf & Hunnard

Hordeum vulgare L.

Hygroryza aristata (Retz.) Nees ex Wight

Hymenachne acutigluma (Steud.) Gilliland

Ichnanthus vicinus (Bailey) Merr.

Imperata cylindrica (L.)Raeusch. var. major (Nees) Hubbard ex Hubbard & Vaughan

Isachne angladei Fischer

Isachne bourneorum Fischer

Isachne deccanensis Bor

Isachne dispar Trin.  var. dispar

Isachne dispar Trin. var. villosa C.E.C. Fischer

Isachne elegans Dalz ex Hook.

Isachne globosa (Thunb.) Kuntze

Isachne kunthiana (Wight & Arn. ex Steud.) Miq.

Isachne miliacea Roth

Isachne oreades (Domin) Bor.

Isachne pulchella Roth ex Roem. & Schultes

Isachne walkeri (Arn. ex Steud.) Wight & Arn. ex Thw.

Ischaemum commutatum Hack.

Ischaemum flumineum Bor.

Ischaemum indicum (Houtt.) Merr.

Ischaemum koenigii (Hook. f.) Stapf ex Fischer

Ischaemum nilagiricum Hack.

Ischaemum pilosum (Klein ex Willd.) Wight

Ischaemum rangacharianum Ficher

Ischaemum rugosum Salisb.

Ischaemum tadulingamii Nair & Sreekumar                          

Ischaemum timorense Kunth

Ischaemum zeylanicolum Bor

Iseilema anthephoroides Hack.

Iseilema jainiana Umamahesw. & P. Daniel

Iseilema laxum Hack.

Iseilema prostratum (L.) Andersson

Jansenella griffithiana (C. Muell.) Bor

Leersia hexandra Sw.

Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees

Leptochloa neesii (Thw.) Benth

Leptochloa obtusiflora Hochst.

Leptochloa panicea (Retz.) Ohwl.

Leptochloa uniflora Hochst ex A. Rich

Lolium perenne L.

Lolium temulentum L.

Lophatherum gracile Brongn.

Lopholepis ornithocephala (Hook.) Steud.

Lophopogon tridentatus (Roxb.) Hack.

Manisuris myuros L.

Melanocenchris jacquemontii Jaub. & Spach

Melanocenchris monoica (Rottl.) Fischer

Melica scaberrima (Nees ex Steud.) Hook.

Microchloa indica (L.f.) Beauv.

Microchloa kunthii Desv.

Microstegium ciliatum (Trin.) A. Camus

Microstegium nudum (Trin.) A. Camus

Miscanthus nepalensis (Trin.) Hack.

Mnesithea granularis (L.) de Koning & Sosef

Mnesithea laevis (Retz.) Kunth

Myriostachya wightiana (Nees ex Steud.) Hook.

Oclandra beddomei Gamble

Ochlandra scriptoria (Dennst.) Fischer var. sivagiriana (Gamble) Fischer

Ochlandra setigera Gamble

Ochlandra travancorica Benth ex Gamble

Ophiuros bombaiensis Bor

Ophiuros exaltatus (L.) Kuntze

Oplismenus burmannii (Retz.) P. Beauv.

Oplismenus compositus (L.) P. Beauv

Oplismenus undulatifolius (Ard.) P. Beauv ex Roem. & Schultes

Oropetium thomaeum (L.f.) Trin.

Oryza barthii A. Chevali

Oryza meyeriana (Zoll. & Mor.) Baill. var. granulata (Nees & Arn. ex Wall) Duist.

Oryza minuta J. S. Presl.

Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt subsp malampuzhaensis (Krishnaswami & Chandrasekaran) Tateoka

Oryza rufipogon Griff.

Oryza sativa L.

Ottochloa nodosa (Kunth) Dandy

Oxytenanthera monadelpha(Thw.) Alston

Oxytenanthera ritcheyi (Munro) Blatter

Panicum antidotale Retz.

Panicum brevifolium L.

Panicum fischeri Bor

Panicum gardneri Thw.

Panicum maximum Jacq.

Panicum miliaceum L.

Panicum notatum Retz.

Panicum paludosum Roxb.

Panicum psilopodium Trin.

Panicum repens L.

Panicum sparsicomum Nees ex Steud.

Panicum sumatrense Roth ex Roem. & Schultes

Panicum trypheron Schultes

Paspalidium flavidum (Retz.) A. Camus

Paspalidium geminatum (Forssk.) Stapf

Paspalidium punctatum (Burm.f.) A. Camus

Paspalum canarae (Steud.) Veldk.

Paspalum conjugatum Berg.

Paspalum dilatatum Poir.

Paspalum distichum L.

Paspalum longifolium Roxb.

Paspalum scrobiculatum L.

Paspalum vaginatum Sw.

Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke.

Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst.

Pennisetum hohenackeri Hochst.

Pennisetum pedicellatum Trin.

Pennisetum polystachyon (L.) Schultes

Pennisetum purpureum Schum

Pennisetum villosum R. Br. ex Fresen

Perotis indica (L.) Kuntze var. indica

Perotis indica (L.) Kuntze var. keelakaraiensis Umamahesw. & P. Daniel

Phalaris aquatica L.

Phalaris arundinacea L.

Phalaris minor Retz.

Phragmites karka (Retz.) Trin ex Steud.

Poa annua L.

Poa gamblei Bor

Poa trivialis L.

Pogonatherum crinitum (Thunb.) Kunth

Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam.) Hack.

Polypogon fugax Nees ex Steud.

Pommereulla cornucopiae L.

Pseudanthistiria heteroclita (Roxb.) Hook.

Pseudanthistiria umbellata (Hack.) Hook.

Pseudechinolaena polystachya (H.B.K.) Stapf

Pseudobrachiaria deflexa (Schum.) Launert

Pseudoraphis spinescens (R. Br.) Veickery

Pseudosorghum fasciculare (Roxb.) A. Camus

Rhynchelytrum repens (Willd.) Hubbard

Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton

Saccharum arundinaceum Retz.

Saccharum narenga (Nees ex Steud.) Hack.

Saccharum officinarum L.

Saccharum spontaneum L.

Sacciolepis curvata (L.) Chase

Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase

Sacciolepis interrupta (Willd.) Stapf

Sacciolepis myosuroides (R. Br.) A. Camus

Schizachyrium brevifolium (Sw.) Nees ex Buese

Sehima nervosum (Rottl.) Stapf

Sehima sulcatum (Hack.) A. Camus

Setaria homonyma (Steud.) Chiov.

Setaria intermedia Roem. & Schultes

Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv

Setaria palmifolia (Koen.) Stapf.

Setaria plicata (lam.) Cooke

Setaria poiretiana (Schultes) Kunth

Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schultes

Setaria sphacelata (Schum.) Stapf & Hubbard

Setaria verticillata (L.) P. Beauv

Sinarundinaria wightiana ( Nees ) C.S.Chao & Renvoize

Sorghum arundinaceum (Desv.) Stapf

Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. Meth.

Sorghum cernuum Host var. orbiculatum Snowden

Sorghum cernuum Host var. truchmenorum (C.Koch) Snowden

Sorghum conspicuum Snowden                                                      

Sorghum coriaceum Snowden               

Sorghum dimidiatum Stapf                 

Sorghum dochna (Forssk.) Snowden var. irungu (Burkill ex Benson & Subbarao) Snowden

Sorghum dochna (Forssk.) Snowden var. obovatum (Hack.) Snowden

Sorghum durra (Forssk.) Stapf var. coimbatoricum (Burkill ex Benson & Subbarao) Snowden

Sorghum durra (Forssk.) Stapf var. mediocre (Burkill ex Benson & Subbarao) Snowden

Sorghum guineense Stafp           

Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.

Sorghum laxiflorum F.M. Bailey              

Sorghum nitidum (Vahl.) Pers.

Sorghum roxburghii Stapf var. hians Stapf

Sorghum subglabrescens (Steud.) Schweinf. & Asch. var. subglabrescens

Sorghum subglabrescens (Steud.) Schweinf. & Asch. var. compactum (Burkill) Snowden

Sorghum subglabrescens (Steud.) Schweinf. & Asch. var. irungiforme (Burkill) Snowden

Sorghum subglabrescens (Steud.) Schweinf. & Asch. var. oviforme Snowden

Sorghum subglabrescens (Steud.) Schweinf. & Asch. var. rubidum (Burkill) Snowden

Sorghum versicolor Anderss.                 

Spinifex littoreus (Burm.f.) Merr.

Spodiopogon rhizophorus (Steud.) Pilger

Sporobolus capillaris Miq.

Sporobolus coromandelianus (Retz.) Kunth

Sporobolus hajrae Umamahesw. & P. Daniel

Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br. var. diander (Retz.) Jovet & Guedes

Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br. var. fertilis (Steudd.) Jovet & Guedes

Sporobolus maderaspatanus Bor

Sporobolus piliferus (Trin.) Kunth

Sporobolus spicatus (Vahl.) Kunth

Sporobolus tenuissimus (Schrank) Kuntze

Sporobolus tremulus (Willd.) Kunth

Sporobolus virginicus (L.) Kunth

Sporobolus wallichii Munro ex Trin.

Stenotaphrum dimidiatum (L.) Brongn.

Teinostachyum wightii Bedd.

Themeda cymbaria Hack.

Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze

Themeda tremula (Nees ex Steud.) hack.

Themeda triandra Forssk.

Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb.) Kuntze

Trachys muricata (L.) Pers ex Trin.

Tragus roxburghii Panigrahi

Tripogon bromoides Roem. & Schultes

Tripogon jacquemontii Stapf

Tripogon lisboae Stapf

Tripogon pungens Fischer

Tripogon wightii Hook.

Tripsacum laxum Nash

Triticum aestivum L.                               

Triticum dicoccum Schubler

Urochloa mosambicensis (Hack.) Dandy

Urochloa panicoides P. Beauv

Vetiveria lawsonii (Hook. f.) Blatter & Mc Cann

Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash

Vulpia bromoides (L.) Gray

Vulpia megalura (Nutt.) Rydb.

Vulpia myuros (L.) Gmel.

Zea mays L.

Zenkeria elegans Trin.

Zenkeria sebastinei Henry & Chandrabose

Zenkeria stapfii Henrard

Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr.

Zoysia pungens Willd.

(Contd.)

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