Research and Media Network

Bringing people together to improve communication of research findings

Medicinal Soil, Traditional Entomotherapy and Wild Mushrooms for Herb Toxicity

Excerpts from my Jungle Diaries (April 2012 onwards) Part-9

(In continuation of Part-8)

“It seems that the patient is unconscious from three hours. Earlier this morning he was complaining about dullness, dizziness and drowsiness with vomiting and pain in stomach.” I received a phone call from remote village. It was the call of my field assistant.

“From symptoms I am unable to diagnose anything. Please take him to the Traditional Healers or nearby hospital.” I instructed.

 “The Traditional Healers of our village are out for collection of herbs in forest and due to severe flood we are unable to shift the patient to hospital.” He replied.

“In that case let me ask to my medical practioner friend.” I said and without any delay walked towards the friend living near to my home.

“Without seeing patient it is difficult for me to recommend anything. I can suggest medicines based on present troubles but as you are saying that patient is unconscious then I can do nothing from this side.” My friend surrendered.

 I decided to travel to nearby village where many senior Traditional Healers live.

 “Sir, please do something. The condition is deteriorating alarmingly.” There were so many calls from my assistant who was atleast 5 hours far from my home.

 “I am doing my best.” I tried to assure him. After one hour I reached to the Traditional Healers. After getting full details they sorted out some troubles and started working on it.

 “Please ask to the patient what he has consumed in last 24 hours.” The Healers asked to my assistant. The Assistant replied that he was in religious fast and taking only wild fruits from three days.”

 “Wild fruits? Which one? Please inform immediately.” The Healers questioned.

“In his house there are lots of Bahera (Terminalia bellirica) fruits. But we are not sure whether he has consumed it or not?” The assistant said.

Terminalia bellirica, I_PAO1999

(Terminalia bellirca fruits- Picture by Pankaj Oudhia)

 I saw a glitter in the eyes of Traditional Healers. “It is toxicity symptoms of excess consumption of Bahera fruits. Let us check once more before suggesting medicines.” The Healers disclosed and they talked to the assistant again.

“Please go to toilet he was using from 24 hours. Take deep breathe their and tell us about the smell.” The Healers instructed. Very soon another call came and it confirmed that typical smell is present in Toilet. It is smell of matured Bahera fruits.   

“First of all arrange cold water and as cold water bath is not possible please sprinkle cold water on him.” Now the Healers started their treatment. After 15 minutes of long wait the call came.

“The patient is becoming conscious slowly. He has confirmed about use of Bahera fruits.” The assistant called with joy.

 “Please give this task to some one else and arrange early maturing Traditional Rice from your village.” The Healers instructed further.

 The assistant managed to arrange Santhi rice that matures in 60 days. He cooked it and then served it with sugar and fresh curd to the patient as per instruction of Traditional Healers. Within few hours the condition of patient improved. I was once again amazed by the in depth knowledge of Traditional Healers. They took nothing from me but I presented him three Formulations I collected through recent surveys. Bahera toxicity up to this extent is not mentioned in reference literature. It was new experience for me.

Bahera is consumed in bulk by common people in famous Ayurveda preparation Triphala along with Terminalia chebula i.e. Harra and Emblica officinalis i.e. Aonla. The labels on Ayurveda products don’t give any information about Toxicity and possible treatment of it. One of my clients working in Ayurveda manufacturing unit explained that in Ayurveda not much has been written about Bahera toxicity and in general Ayurveda Formulations are consider safe. I am not satisfied with his answer. Ayurveda literature gives information about it but in brief. The Traditional Healers know much on this aspect but their knowledge is still not in documented form.

This incidence motivated me to collect information about Bahera Toxicity during Ethnobotanical surveys. “Bahera toxicity is rare and we have treated total 12 cases in our life time.” The Traditional Healers of North Chhattisgarh informed. They use Herbal Combination to treat this toxicity. There are total 18 ingredients in this Herbal Formulation. Surprisingly Bahera bark is also an important ingredient of this Formulation. When I interacted with the Young Healers of the same area they showed ignorance towards this Formulation. These days the Young Healers take interest in common diseases and want to protect their mind from extra load of less used Formulations. It is sign of Danger for generation old Traditional Healing. Generation by generation in this way they loose millions of less used Formulations. For time being I decided to document only nearly Forgotten Formulations but my friends suggested that simply document what ever you get. Let the coming generation decide about its use. Documentation is must.

During surveys I observed that monkeys are fond of Bahera fruits. I have taken many pictures and videos of monkeys consuming Bahera fruits in wild. The Traditional Healers of Chhattisgarh Plains are aware of it. They shared interesting information.

” Many times young monkeys consume Bahera in excess and you can see the specific symptoms on them. The older monkeys visit to Bargad (Ficus benghalensis) tree and search for insect eggs. The eggs are given as antidote. It was very interesting information related to Traditional Entomotherapy. I showed interest in seeing the insect eggs. Later I identified it as eggs of stink bug.

(Langurs enjoying Bahera fruits- Video by Pankaj Oudhia)

“But these eggs are not available round the year, and then monkeys must be using some other medicines as antidote.” I said.

(Insect eggs used in Traditional Entomotherapy- Picture by Pankaj Oudhia)

 It was new challenge for the Traditional Healers. They assured me to collect more information on this aspect.

The Traditional Healers of Bastar are aware of Bahera fruits toxicity. At first they try Ancient Pelopathy i.e. use of medicinal soil. They collect the soil from root zone of five forest trees and smear it on the patient’s body. They claim that in most of the cases the patient gets much relief after this simple treatment. I found this treatment approach near to sprinkle of cold water on patient’s body.

 “May be it is same approach but you can test the efficacy of both. In our method patients return to normalancy within no time. It is not the coldness but the medicinally rich soil of Tree root zone play key role.” They tried to explain.

I am convinced with their explanation.  In modern days this phenomenon is explained through Allelopathy and the natural medicinal chemicals they were talking about are known as Allelochemicals.     

While travelling from Tatanagar to Ranchi I discussed about Bahera Toxicity with the Traditional Healers of Jharkhand.

“First of all bring yellow colored Mushroom. Then we will tell you about treatment of Bahera toxicity.” They said in straight words. It was not possible to arrange it at that time but as important information I noted it down.

 In general yellow colored mushrooms are considered rich in sulfur and many Healers use it in treatment of skin diseases specially in treatment of skin cancer but the yellow mushrooms are considered toxic. Hence, judicious use is required. I have written a lot on different aspects of yellow mushrooms and its important role in Indian Traditional Healing. The Traditional Healers of Chhattisgarh collect yellow Mushroom growing in base of wild trees and use it in different diseases. For example the yellow mushroom growing at the base of Senha tree is used both internally as well as externally in tens of Herbal Formulations. Many Healers purify it before using.

When I shared this discussion with the Healers of Chhattisgarh having expertise in treatment of Bahera toxicity they simply said that may be the yellow mushroom is useful for this toxicity but we feel that if simple and effective alternatives are available then there is no need of using toxins against toxins.

The senior Healers of Bastar disclosed that they consume 4 types of Herbs specially wild tubers every month and total 48 herbs in year as medicine. It protects from everything from diseases to snake venom and all types of toxicity.

 “We are ready to share information about it but for that you have to do some kind of Tapasya. Please visit to us up to 50 times. Every time we will inform you about one herb and in last two visits about other properties of these 48 herbs.” They proposed.

 I accepted the proposal but in last 20 years I have met only 14 times to them. They have lost many senior Healers meanwhile but the knowledge is safe with young generation. I will try to visit more frequently to complete this valuable knowledge.

The information about 14 herbs I have collected so far is of immense use for arm forces living and fighting in adverse conditions around the world. The two herbs are promising in treating cancer at advanced stage whereas three are used to prevent cancer specially when the reason is excess mental and physical stress. When I shared the information about these 14 herbs to the Healers of different states in India many of them suggested more herbs in order to complete the target of 48 herbs. With due respect I have noted their expert comments but I am eager to learn the complete herbs used by the Healers of Bastar.

In Global Traditional Healing thousands are herbs are used in form of herbal formulations to manage toxicity due to wrong use of herbs. Here is list of some plants from my Medicinal Plant Database.       

Urena lobata L. subsp. lobata

Urena lobata L. subsp. sinuata (L.) Borssum

Adansonia digitata L.

Bombax ceiba L.

Bombax ellipticum Kunth

Bombax insigne Wall.

Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.

Chorisia speciosa St. Hil.

Cullenia exarillata Robyns

Durio zibethinus DC.

Byttneria herbacea Roxb.

Cola acuminata (P. Beauv.) Schott & Endlicher

Dombeya acutangula Cav.

Dombeya burgessiae Gerr. ex Harv.

Dombeya mastersii Hook.

Dombeya mollis Hook.

Dombeya platanifolia Boj.

Dombeya spectabilis Boj.

Dombeya wallichii (Lindl.) K. Schum.

Eriolaena hookeriana Wight & Arn.

Eriolaena lushingtonii Dunn

Eriolaena quinquelocularis (Wight & Arn.) Wight

Eriolaena stocksii Hook. f. & Thoms.

Firmiana colorata (Roxb.) R. Br.

Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.

Helicteres isora L.

Heritiera papilio Bedd.

Hildegardia populnifolia (Roxb.) Schott & Endl.

Kleinhovia hospita L.

Leptonychia moacurroides Bedd.

Melhania balakrishnanii K.Ravik., R.Ganesan & K.Ramamurthy

Melhania cannabina Wight ex Mast.

Melhania hamiltoniana Wall.

Melhania incana Heyne ex Wight & Arn.

Melochia corchorifolia L.

Melochia nodiflora Sw.

Melochia pyramidata L.

Pentapetes phoenicea L.

Pterospermum acerifolium (L.) Willd.

Pterospermum canescens Roxb.

Pterospermum diversifolium Blume

Pterospermum obtusifolium Wight ex Mast.

Pterospermum reticulatum Wight & Arn.

Pterospermum rubiginosum Heyne ex Wight & Arn.

Pterospermum xylocarpum (Gaertn.) Sant. & Wagh

Pterygota alata (Roxb.) R. Br.

Sterculia balanghas L.

Sterculia foetida L.

Sterculia guttata Roxb. ex DC.

Sterculia urens Roxb.

Sterculia villosa Roxb. ex DC.

Theobroma cacao L.

Waltheria indica L.

Berrya cordifolia (Willd.) Burret.

Berrya javanica (Turez.) Burret.

Corchorus aestuans L.

Corchorus capsularis L.

Corchorus fascicularis Lam.

Corchorus olitorius L.

Corchorus tridens L.

Corchorus trilocularis L.

Corchorus urticifolius Wight & Arn.

Grewia abutilifolia Juss.

Grewia abutilifolia Vent. ex Juss.

Grewia barberi Drumm.

Grewia bracteata Roth.

Grewia damine Gaertn.

Grewia flavescens Juss.

Grewia gamblei Drumm.

Grewia heterotricha Mast.

Grewia hirsuta Vahl.

Grewia lanceaefolia Roxb.

Grewia nervosa (Lour.) Panigr.

Grewia oppositifolia Buch - Ham ex Roxb.

Grewia orbiculata Rottl.

Grewia orientalis L.

Grewia pandaica Drumm.

Grewia rhamnifolia Heyne ex Roth

Grewia rothii DC.

Grewia serrulata DC.

Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Fiori

Grewia tiliifolia Vahl.

Grewia umbellifera Bedd.

Grewia villosa Willd.

Muntingia calabura L.

Triumfetta annua L.

Triumfetta pentandra A. Rich

Triumfetta pilosa Roth

Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq.

Triumfetta rotundifolia Lam.

Elaeocarpus amoenus Thw.

Elaeocarpus blascoi Weibeln   

Elaeocarpus lanceifolius Roxb.

Elaeocarpus munronii (Wight) Mast.

Elaeocarpus recurvatus Corner

Elaeocarpus rugosus Roxb.

Elaeocarpus serratus L.

Elaeocarpus glandulosus Wall.  ex Merr.

Elaeocarpus tuberculatus Roxb.

Elaeocarpus venustus Bedd.

Hugonia mystax L.

Linum mysurense Heyne ex Benth.

Linum usitatissimum L.

Reinwardtia indica Dumort.

Erythroxylum coca Lam.

Erythroxylum lanceolatum (Wight) Walp.

Erythroxylum monogynum Roxb.

Erythroxylum moonii Hochr.

Erythroxylum obtusifolium (Wight) Hook.

Aspidopterys canarensis Dalz.

Aspidopterys indica (Roxb.) Hochr.

Galphimia gracilis Bartl.

Hiptage benghalensis (L.) Kurz

Hiptage obtusifolia DC.

Hiptage parvifolia Wight & Arn.

Malpighia coccigera L.

Malpighia glabra L.

Malpighia heternantha Wight

Malpighia punicifolia L.

Tristellateia australasiae A. Rich.

Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del.

Fagonia cretica L.

Guaiacum officinale L.

Tribulus lanuginosis L.

Tribulus subramanii P. Singh, Giri & V. Singh

Erodium moschatum (L.) L' Herit

Geranium nepalense Sweet

Pelargonium capitatum (L.) Ait.

Pelargonium cucullatum (L.) Ait.

Pelargonium  x domesticum L.H.Bailey

Pelargonium graveolens L' Herit

Pelargonium grossularioides (L.) Ait.

Pelargonium  x hortorum L.H.Bailey

Pelargonium inquinans (L.) Ait.

Pelargonium peltatum Soland.

Tropaeolum majus L.

Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam.

Limnanthes douglasii R. Br.

Biophytum insignis Gamble

Biophytum intermedium Wight var. pulneyensis Edgew. & Hook.

Biophytum longibracteatum Tad. & Jacob

Biophytum nudum (Arn.) Wight

Biophytum polyphyllum Munro

Biophytum proliferum (Arn.) Wight

Biophytum reinwardtii (Zucc.) Klotzsch

Biophytum sensitivum (L.) DC. var. sensitivum

Biophytum sensitivum (L.) DC var. candolleanum (Wight) Edgew . & Hook.f

Biophytum sensitivum (L.) DC var. nervifolium (Thw.) Edgew . & Hook.f.   

Oxalis acetosella L.

Oxalis cernua Thunb. 

Oxalis corniculata L.

Oxalis corymbosa DC.

Oxalis deppei Lodd.   

Oxalis latifolia H. B. K.

Oxalis pubescens H. B. K.  

Oxalis variabilis Jacq.

Averrhoa bilimbi L.

Averrhoa carambola L.

Hydrocera triflora (L.) Wight & Arn.

Impatiens acaulis Arn.

Impatiens auriculata Wight

Impatiens balsamina L.

Impatiens campanulata Wight

Impatiens chandrasekharanii Chandrabose

Impatiens chinensis L.

Impatiens clavicornu Turez.

Impatiens cordata Wight

Impatiens crenata Bedd.

Impatiens cuspidata Wight

Impatiens dasysperma Wight

Impatiens debilis Turez.

Impatiens denisonii Bedd.

Impatiens disotis Hook.

Impatiens diversifolia Wall ex Wight & Arn.

Impatiens elegans Bedd.

Impatiens floribunda Wight

Impatiens fruticosa Lesch. ex DC.

Impatiens gardneriana Wight

Impatiens goughii Wight

Impatiens grandis Heyne

Impatiens hensloviana Arn.

Impatiens herbicola Hook.

Impatiens hookeriana Arn.

Impatiens inconspicua Benth ex. Wight & Arn.

Impatiens jerdoniae Wight

Impatiens laticornis Fischer

Impatiens latifolia L.

Impatiens lawsonii Hook.

Impatiens lenta Hook.

Impatiens leptura Hook.

Impatiens leschenaultii (DC.) Wall. ex Wight & Arn.

Impatiens levingei Gamble ex Hook.

Impatiens ligulata Bedd.

Impatiens maculata Wight

Impatiens minor (DC.) Bennet

Impatiens modesta Wight

Impatiens munronii Wight

Impatiens neo-barnesii Fischer

Impatiens nilgirica Fischer

Impatiens oppositifolia L.

Impatiens orchioides Bedd.

Impatiens parasitica Bedd. 

Impatiens parvifolia Bedd.

Impatiens phoenicea Bedd.

Impatiens rufescens Benth. ex Wight & Arn.

Impatiens scabriuscula Heyne ex Roxb.

Impatiens scapiflora Heyne ex Roxb.

Impatiens tangachee Bedd.

Impatiens tenella Heyne ex Wight & Arn.

Impatiens tomentosa Heyne ex Wight & Arn.

Impatiens travancorica Bedd.

Impatiens trichocarpa Hook.

Impatiens umbellata Heyne ex Roxb.

Impatiens uncinata Wight

Impatiens verticillata Wight

Impatiens viridiflora Wight

Impatiens viscida Wight 

Impatiens viscosa Bedd.

Impatiens wightiana Bedd.

Acronychia pedunculata (L.) Miq.

Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa

Atalantia monophylla (L.) Correa

Atalantia racemosa Wight & Arn.

Atalantia wightii Tanaka

Boenninghausenia albiflora (Hook.) Reichb. ex Meisner

Chloroxylon swietenia DC.

Choisya ternata Kunth

Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle

Citrus aurantium L.

Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f.

Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.

Citrus medica L.

Citrus nobilis Lour.

Citrus reticulata Blanco

Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck.

Clausena austro - indica B. C. Stone

Clausena dentata (Willd.) M. Roem

Clausena indica (Dalz.) Oliver

Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels

Euodia fraxinifolia (D. Don.) Hook. f.

Euodia lunu-ankenda (Gaertn.) Merr. var. lunu-ankenda

Euodia lunu-ankenda (Gaertn.) Merr. var. tirunelvelica Henry & Chandr.

Fortunalla japonica (Thunb.) Swingle

Glycosmis angustifolia Lindl.ex Wight & Arn.

Glycosmis cyanocarpa (Blume) Spreng. var. cymosa Kurz

Glycosmis macrocarpa Wight

Glycosmis mauritiana (Lam.) Tanaka

Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) DC.

Glycosmis tirunelveliensis Murugan & Manickam

Limonia acidissima L.

Luvunga eleutherandra Dalz.

Melicope indica Wight

Melicope lunu-ankenda (Gaertn.) T. G. Hartley

Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.

Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack

Naringi crenulata (Roxb.) Nicolson

Pamburus missionis (Wight) Swingle

Paramigyna beddomei Tanaka

Paramignya monophylla Wight

Pleiospermium alatum (Wall ex. Wight & Arn.) Swingle

Ruta chalepensis L.

Tetradium fraxinifolia  (Hook.) T. G. Hartley

Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam.

Triphasia trifolia (Burm. f.) P. Wilson

Vepris bilocularis (Wight & Arn.) Engler

Zanthoxylum armatum DC.

Zanthoxylum ovalifolium Wight

Zanthoxylum rhetsa (Roxb.) DC.

Zanthoxylum limonellia (Dennst.) Alston

Ailanthus excelsa Roxb.

Ailanthus triphysa (Dennst.) Alston

Quassia amara L.

Suriana maritima L.

Gomphia serrata (Gaertn.) Kanis

Ochna integerrima (Lour.) Merr.

Ochna jabotapita L.

Ochna lanceolata Spreng.

Ochna obtusata DC. var. obtusata

Ochna gamblei King ex Brandis

Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Coleb.

Bursera penicillata (Sesse & Moc. ex DC.) Engler

Canarium strictum Roxb.

Canarium vulgare Leenh.

Commiphora berryi (Arn.) Engler

Commiphora caudata (Wight & Arn.) Engler var. caudata

Commiphora caudata (Wight & Arn.) Engler var. pubescens (Wight & Arn.) K.M. Matthew

Garuga floribunda Decne var. gamblei (King ex W. W. Sm.) Kalkman

Garuga pinnata Roxb.

Aglaia apiocarpa (Thw.) Hiern

Aglaia barberi Gamble

Aglaia bourdillonii Gamble

Aglaia domestica (Correa) Pellegrin Lecomte

Aglaia elaeagnoidea (Juss.) Benth.

Aglaia edulis (Roxb.) Wall

Aglaia lawii (Wight) Saldanha

Aglaia tomentosa Teijsm. & Binn.

Aglaia odorata Lour.

Aglaia simplicifolia (Bedd.) Harms

Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall.) Parker

Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

Chukrasia tabularis A. Juss.

Cipadessa baccifera (Roth) Miq.

Dysoxylum binectariferum (Roxb.) Hook. f. ex Bedd.

Dysoxylum ficiforme (Wight) Gamble

Dysoxylum malabaricum Bedd. ex Hiern

Melia azedarach L.

Munronia pinnata (Wall.) Harms

Naregamia alata Wight & Arn.

Reinwardtiodendron anamallayanum (Bedd.) Saldahnha

Sandoricum koetjape (Burm.f.) Merr.  

Soymida febrifuga (Roxb.) A. Juss.

Swietenia macrophylla King

Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq.

Toona ciliata M. Roem.  var. ciliata

Toona ciliata M. Roem. var. pilistila (C. DC.) Nair & Kumari

Trichilia connaroides (Wight & Arn.) Bentvelzen

Turraea villosa Benn.

Walsura trifolia (A. Juss.) Harms

Xylocarpus granatum Koen.

Dichapetalum gelonioides (Roxb.) Engler

Anacolosa densiflora Bedd.

Olax scandens Roxb.

Olax imbricata Roxb. var. imbricata

Olax imbricata Roxb. var. nigrescens Gamble

Strombosia ceylanica Gard.

Ximenia americana L.

Cansjera rheedii Gmel.

Opilia amentacea Roxb.

Apodytes dimidiata E. Meyer ex Arn.

Gomphandra coriacea Wight

Gomphandra tetrandra (Wall ex. Roxb.) Sleumer

Miquelia dentata Bedd.

Nothapodytes nimmoniana (Graham) Mabberley

Pyrenacantha volubilis Wight

Sarcostigma kleinii Wight & Arn.

Erythropalum populifolium (Arn.) Mast.

Ilex aquifolium L.

Ilex denticulata Wall ex Wight

Ilex gardneriana Wight

Ilex malabarica Bedd.

Ilex opaca Ait.

Ilex walkeri Wight & Gard. ex Thw.

Ilex wightiana Wall ex. Wight

Bhesa indica (Bedd.) Ding

Cassine glauca (Rottb.) Kuntze

Cassine paniculata (Wight & Arn.) Lobr.-Callen

Celastrus paniculatus Willd. var. paniculatus

Celastrus paniculatus Willd. subsp. dependens (Wall.) Ding Hou 

Celastrus paniculatus Willd. subsp. aggregatus K.T.Mathew

Euonymus angulatus Wight

Euonymus barberi C. Murugan & V. S. Manickam

Euonymus crenulatus Wall ex Wight & Arn.

Euonymus dichotomous Heyne ex Roxb.

Euonymus indicus Heyne ex Roxb.

Euonymus japonicus Thunb.

Euonymus kanyakumariensis Murugan & Manickam

Euonymus paniculatus Wight ex Lawson

Euonymus serratifolius Bedd.

Glyptopetalum grandiflorum Bedd.

Glyptopetalum lawsonii Gamble

Glyptopetalum zeylanicum Thw.

Loeseneriella bourdillonii (Gamble) Raju            

Loeseneriella obtusifolia (Roxb.) A. C. Smith

Lophopetalum wightianum Arn.

Maytenus emarginata (Willd.) Ding Hou

Maytenus heyneana (Roth) Raju & Babu

Maytenus ovatus (Wall ex Wight & Arn.) Loes.

Maytenus rufa (Wall.) Hara

Maytenus wallichiana (Wight & Arn.) Raju & Babu

Microtropis microcarpa Wight  var. microcarpa

Microtropis microcarpa Wight var. densiflora Merr. & Freem.

Microtropis latifolia Wight ex Lawson

Microtropis ovalifolia Wight

Microtropis ramiflora Wight

Microtropis stocksii Gamble

Microtropis wallichiana Wight ex Thw.

Pleurostylia opposita (Wall.) Alston

Reissantia grahamii (Wight) Ding Hou

Reissantia indica (Willd.) Halle

Salacia beddomei Gamble

Salacia chinensis L.

Salacia fruticosa Heyne ex Lawson

Salacia macrosperma Wight

Salacia oblonga Wall. ex Wight & Arn.

Alphitonia excelsa Reiss ex Endlicher

Colletia cruciata Gill. & Hook.

Colletia ferox Gill. & Hook.

Colubrina asiatica (L.) Brongn.

Gouania microcarpa DC.

Hovenia acerba Lindl.

Maesopsis eminii Engler

Noltea africana (L.) Reichb. ex Harv. & Sond.

Pomaderris apetala Labill.

Pomaderris lanigera Sims

Rhamnus cathartica L.

Rhamnus dahuricus Pall.

Rhamnus virgatus Roxb.

Rhamnus wightii Wight & Arn.

Sageretia hamosa Brongn.

Sageretia parviflora (Klein) G. Don

Scutia myrtina (Burm. f.) Kurz.

Ventilago denticulata Willd.

Ventilago gamblei Suesseng

Ventilago goughii Gamble

Ventilago madraspatana Gaertn.

Ziziphus glabrata Heyne ex Roth

Ziziphus horrida Roth

Ziziphus incurva Roxb.

Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. var. mauritiana

Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. var. fruticosa (Haines) Sebastine & Balakr.

Ziziphus nummularia (Burm.f.) Wight & Arn.

Ziziphus oenoplia (L.) Mill.

Ziziphus rugosa Lam.

Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz.) Willd.

Ampelocissus araneosa (Dalz. & Gibs.) Planch.

Ampelocissus divaricata (Wall ex Lawson) Planch.

Ampelocissus indica (L.) Planch

Ampelocissus latifolia (Roxb.) Planch.

Ampelocissus tomentosa (Heyne ex Roth) Planch.

Ampelocissus wightiana Shetty & Singh                 

Cayratia anemonifolia (Zipp. Ex Miq.) Suesseng.

Cayratia auriculata (Roxb.) Gamble

Cayratia japonica (Thunb.) Gagnep.

Cayratia mollissima (Wall.) Gagnep.

Cayratia pedata (Lam.) Juss. ex Gagnep.  var. pedata

Cayratia pedata (Lam.) Juss. ex Gagnep. var. glabra  Gamble

Cayratia roxburghii (Wight & Arn.) Gagnep.

Cayratia tenuifolia (Wight & Arn.) Gagnep.

Cayratia trifolia (L.) Domin.                                     

Cissus arnottiana B.V.Shetty & P.Singh   

Cissus adnata Roxb.

Cissus discolor Blume.

Cissus latifolia Lam.

Cissus glyptocarpa (Thw.) Planch.

Cissus heyneana (Wall. ex Lawson) Planch.

Cissus quadrangularis L.

Cissus repanda Vahl

Cissus repens Lam.

Cissus vitiginea L.

Cyphostemma setosum (Roxb.) Alston

Parthenocissus neilgherriensis (Wight) Planch.

Parthenocissus semicordata (Wall.) Planchon var. roylei (King) Raizada & Saxina     

Tetrastigma gamblei Shetty & Singh

Tetrastigma leucostaphylum (Dennst.) Alston

Tetrastigma nilagiricum (Miq.) Shetty                            

Tetrastigma sulcatum (Lawson) Gamble

Vitis vinifera L.

Leea asiatica (L.) Ridsdale

Leea guineensis G. Don

Leea indica (Burm. F. ) Merr.

Leea macrophylla Roxb. ex Hornem.

Allophylus cobbe (L.) Raeusch.

Cardiospermum canescens Wall.

Cardiospermum halicacabum L.

Dimocarpus longan Lour. 

Dodonaea viscosa (L.) Jacq. 

Filicium decipiens (Wight & Arn.) Thw.

Harpullia arborea (Blanco) Radlk.

Lepisanthes erecta (Thw.) Leenh.

Lepisanthes senegalensis (Juss. ex Poir.) Leenh.

Lepisanthes tetraphylla (Vahl.) Radlk.

Litchi chinensis Sonner.

Otonephelium stipulaceum (Bedd.) Radlk.

Sapindus emarginatus Vahl

Sapindus trifoliata L.

Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Oken

Aesculus indica (Cambess.)  Hook.

Acer caesium Wall. ex Brandis

Acer oblongum Wall. ex DC.

Acer pseudo-platanus L.

Melianthus major L.

Turpinia malabarica Gamble

Turpinia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr.

Meliosma pinnata (Roxb.) Maxim. subsp. barbulata (Cufod.) Beus.

Meliosma simplicifolia (Roxb.) Walp. subsp. simplicifolia

Meliosma simplicifolia (Roxb.) Walp. subsp. pungens (Wall ex Wight & Arn.) Beus.

Sabia limoniacea Wall. ex Hook. F. & Thoms.

Anacardium occidentale L.

Buchanania axillaris (Desr.) Ramam.

Buchanania lanzan Spreng.

Gluta travancorica Bedd.

Holigarna arnottiana Hook. f.

Holigarna beddomei Hook. f.

Holigarna ferruginea Marchand

Holigarna grahamii (Wight) Kurz.

Holigarna nigra Bourd.

Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr.

Mangifera indica L.

Nothopegia aureo-fulva Bedd. ex Hook.

Nothopegia beddomei Gamble

Nothopegia colebrookeana (Wight) Blume

Nothopegia heyneana (Hook. f.) Gamble

Nothopegia racemosa (Dalz.) Ramam. var. racemosa

Nothopegia racemosa (Dalz.) Ramam. var. angustifolia (Gamble) Chithra

Nothopegia travancorica Bedd ex Hook.

Nothopegia vajravelui Ravikumar & Lakshmanan

Rhus mysorensis G. Don.

Rhus paniculata Wall. ex Hook. f.

Rhus tomentosa L.

Schinus molle L.


Views: 3891

Add a Comment

You need to be a member of Research and Media Network to add comments!

Join Research and Media Network


© 2021   Created by Matthew Wright.   Powered by

Badges  |  Report an Issue  |  Terms of Service