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Pankaj Oudhia’s Notes on Dillenia indica L. [Kirtikar, Kanhoba Ranchoddas, and Baman Das Basu. "Indian Medicinal Plants." Indian Medicinal Plants. (1918)].

Pankaj Oudhia’s Notes on Dillenia indica L. [Kirtikar, Kanhoba Ranchoddas, and Baman Das Basu. "Indian Medicinal Plants." Indian Medicinal Plants. (1918)].


Pankaj Oudhia




Based on Ethnobotanical surveys since year 1990 in different parts of India Pankaj Oudhia has documented vital information about Medicinal Plants mentioned in the famous publication by Kirtikar and Basu (1918). Through this research document Pankaj Oudhia has tried to present original document with additional notes. For complete paper with pictures, Interactive Tables, Video and Audio clips please visit



For original publication by Kirtikar and Basu (1918) please visit



29. Dillenia indica, Linn,, i. 36 ; Roxb.



Sanskrit : — Bhavya.


Vevn. :— Chalta, (Hind.); Chalta, hargesa (Beng.i ; Korkot

(Santal) ; Chilta (Monghyr); Panpui (G-aro ) ; Chalita otengah,

(Assam); Rai, oao (Uriya) ; Ramphal (Nepal); Phamsikol

(Lepcha) ; Thapru, chauralesia (Mag.) ; Mothe karamala, moth a

karmel, karambel (Bomb.); Mota karmal, karmbel (Mar.);

Uva (Tarn.); LJva, pedda, kalinga (kalinga, Elliot) (Teh);

Bettakanagala, kaddkanagula (Kan.) ; Syalita (Malay.); Honda-

para, Wampara (Sinhalese).


Habitat : —Tropical forests in the Western Peninsula, Behar

and Ceylon, and the Himalaya, from Nepal to Assam. Commonly

cultivated at Dehra and Saharanpur. Eastern Peninsula, from

Sylhet to Singapore. Malay Peninsula and the Islands.


A very handsome tree with fine foliage ; moderate-sized,

round-headed. Bark cinnamon — brown. Leaves closely placed,






very large, 10-12 in long, oblong-lanceolate, acute, sharply

serrate, glabrous above, finely pubescent on veins beneath ;

lateral veins numerous, strong ; petioles If in, long, stout, deeply

channelled above, pnlvinate at base. Flowers very large, 6-7

in. diam, on stout subterminal pedicels. Sepals very fleshy.

Petals white, sometimes pale-azure orbicular with a broad

base. Stamens persistent, yellow. Carpels 15-20, coherent at

the axis. Styles spreading like a star, white; ripe carpels

enclosed in the greatly enlarged and thickened sepals which

are 1 in. thick and strongly imbricate the whole forming a large

green globose pomiform fruit, 5-6 in. diam. Actual fruit 2|-

in. diam. Pericarp thin, indehiscent. Seeds numerous, com-

pressed with a hairy margin.


Uses : — The juice of the fruit, mixed with sugar and water, is

used as a cooling beverage in fevers, and as a cough mixture.

The bark and the leaves are astringent, and are used medicin-

ally. The fruit is slightly laxative, but is apt to induce diarrhoea,

if too freely indulged in. {Roxburgh, Royle, Drqry).


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The fruit gives a lather with water, says Triinen, and is used

as a soap.


[Pankaj Oudhia’s Comment: Through Ethnobotanical surveys conducted in different parts of India since year 1990 I have documented information about over 70,000 Traditional Herbal Formulations in which Dillenia fruits are used as primary and secondary ingredients. In over 15000 Traditional Herbal Formulations Dillenia roots are added as tertiary ingredient. In over 25000 Traditional Herbal Formulations Dillenia bark is used as quinary ingredient. Please see Tables Dillen-1 to Dillen-180 for details. Among the Traditional Healers of Cnetral India the use of Dillenia leaves is popular in treatmenr of different types of cancer. Please see Tables Dillen-181 to Dillen-185 for details.]


Mr. T. P. Ghose of Dehra Dun writes in the Indian Forester

for August 1914 : —


The fresh ripe fruits were taken and the upper layers of calyces were

separated from the inner kernels which consisted mostly of pectous matter

of a jelly-like consistence. The kernels being rejected, the calyces were

crushed and steeped in 90 per cent, alcohol for six months in a drum with

occasional shaking. The alcohol was then filtered off and the residue was

pressed almost dry, and this alcohol was added to the first and the whole

evaporated off under reduced pressure. The alcoholic extract was finally

dried at 100° O, for further examination.


The composition of the calyces of the fresh ripe fruits as was follows :—

Moisture ... ... ... ... ... 86 40 per cent.


Alcoholic extract ... ... ... ... 3'<>0 „


Water extract ... ... ... ... 0'87 „


Insolubles ... ... ••• ... ... 1023 „




The aqueous extract was made after having extracted the calyces with

alcohol, which thus represents only pectous matters, etc., left in the insoluble

tissues after alcoholic extraction. The alcoholic ext act examined qualitatively

showed the presence of tannin glucose, malic acid and pectous bodies. Malic






acid was also identified by means of its lead salt. The composition of the

alcoholic extract obtained as given above was as follows : —


Moisture ... ... ... ... ... 8*20


Tannin ... ... ... ... ... 1*40


Glucose ... ... ... ... ... 12*15


Malic acid ... ... ... ... ... 2*21


Petroleum ether solubles (fats, etc.) ... ... 0*72


Albuminoids ... ... ... ... ... 0'85


Ash ... ... ... ... ... 1263


Pectous matters, etc. ... ... ... ... 6D84






The 6D84 per cent, of pectous matters coming in the alcoholic extract is

due to the dilution of alcohol caused by about 86 per cent, of moisture in the

fresh fruit. Though originally soluble in dilute alcohol, these bodies became

wholly insoluble both in water and in alcohol on anhydration. They were

examined and found to be pectous bodies.


The chief ingredients of the calyces of the fresh ripe fruits are tannin,

glucose and malic acid. The percentage of these three ingredients calculated

on fresh and dry calyces stand as below : —


On fresh calyces. On dry calyces.


(1) Tannin ... 0'05% 0*37%


(2) Glucose ... 0-40% 2-92%


(3) Malic acid ... 0"07% 0*51%


E-documents on Dillenia




Oudhia, Pankaj (2013). Pankaj Oudhia’s Notes on Dillenia indica L. [Kirtikar, Kanhoba Ranchoddas, and Baman Das Basu. "Indian Medicinal Plants." Indian Medicinal Plants. (1918)].

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