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Pankaj Oudhia’s Series on Impact of Parthenium on Biodiversity: 1. Punarnava (Boerhavia diffusa Linn.)

Pankaj Oudhia’s Series on Impact of Parthenium on Biodiversity: 1. Punarnava (Boerhavia diffusa Linn.)

Pankaj Oudhia

Convener, International Parthenium Research News Group [IPRNG]

http://www.pankajoudhia.com/iprng/

“I was much frustrated since one decade as my Punarnava based Herbal Formulation was not giving good results for treatment of blood cancer as it was giving since generations as our family is using this formulation since time immemorial.” I was interacting with the Traditional Healer of Amarkantak Hills of Madhya Pradesh. 

“I searched for all possible reasons for poor performance of Punarnava Formulation but failed to identify the exact cause.  Finally I focused my attention on collection procedure of Punarnava from forest. We were purchasing it from the Herb Collectors of the region. When one day I decided to visit forest with them for collection of medicinal herbs I found rich population of Gajar Ghas i.e. Parthenium hysterophorus inside forest. The infestation was so rich that no other small herbs were visible in the region. It was the time of rainy season. In many places Parthenium plants were of height enough to cover the Herb Collectors. The Herb Collectors informed that the infestation has increased dramatically in last decade and becoming curse for wild herbs.

The Herb Collectors were collecting Punarava from Parthenium infested Jungle.  May be due to this exotic species Punarnava is not performing well in Herbal Formulations-I thought and instructed the Herb Collectors to collect this herb from places  free from Parthenium infestation. They replied that it is next to impossible as entire jungle is covered with Parthenium weed. I decided to purchase it from far place with assurance that it must be collected from Parthenium free zone. Later I used this pure Punarnava in my Formulation and suddenly the Formulation started showing miraculous results as it was showing during the times of our forefathers. “He disclosed with joy.

As a researcher in Agricultural University I conducted series of Allelopathy experiments on hybrid rice and associated weeds including Punarnava. I observed in lab studies that Parthenium extracts and leachate affect many species but its impact on initial growth of Punarnava is very serious.  At that time I was not aware of its impact on medicinal properties of Punarnava.

Not only in Amarkantak but almost every part of India from where Punarnava is collected for national and international herb manufacture companies is heavily infested with this Alien species. I interacted with over 5000 Herb Collectors of 10 Indian states in last 15 years. None of them was aware of the bare fact that Parthenium is curse for Punarnava population and Punarnava must be collected from the Parthenium free zones. Punarnava as single herb and Punarnava based Formulations are freely available in markets. As this is first report on harmful effects of Parthenium on Punarnava there is no check for quality of Punarnava by the authorities and millions of patients are wasting money on less effective Punarnava Formulations. 

Few years back I shared the interesting rather eye opening observation of the Traditional Healer of Amarkantak with the Traditional Healers of Bastar, Chhattisgarh. Many senior Healers were is agreement with the observation of Amarkantak region. “Gajar Ghas is spreading like wild fire and not only Santhi (Punarnava) but also many rare species are in danger due to this alien invasive species.

The Healers of Maharashtra informed that they irrigate wild population of Punarnava with Herbal Extracts in order to enrich it with desired medicinal properties. “When we collect Punarnava from Parthenium infested zone we treat this herb with extracts of wild trees named Kurru and Dikamlai in order to reduce the harmful effects of Parthenium Allelochemicals if any on wild population of Punarnava.” They informed.

I got opportunity to visit to forest with them and to observe the treatment of Punarnava plants. They used fresh extracts. The Traditional Healers of Andhra Pradesh are also aware of this treatment but they prefer 7 days old extract in place of fresh extract.  

When I was interacting with the Traditional Healers of East Africa online I asked about status of Parthenium in their region. They shared much information about harms of Parthenium specially its impact on native flora used in Traditional Healing. Later they provided list of 18 native plants severely affected by Parthenium and its Allelochemicals. I promised them to visit to them to share the experiences of Indian Healers on Parthenium and Biodiversity.

The Traditional Healers of Central India use Punarnava for treatment of Sickle Cell Anemia. They add 24 wild herbs in the Formulations. They are aware of harmful effects of Parthenium population on growth and medicinal properties of Punarnava. They are also aware of poor performances of Herbal Formulation due to impact of Parthenium. In order to recover from this constraint they are adding 5 more herbs in it. But they feel that large scale Parthenium Management program is required in their forest very soon.

The Healers of Jharkhand using Parthenium as Herbal Medicine in their Formulations also confirmed the impact of Parthenium on forest flora.   

 

Related References

Oudhia, P., Kolhe, S.S. and Tripathi, R.S., 1997. Allelopathic effect of Parthenium hysterophorus L. on germination of Linseed. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology2, pp.327-329.

Oudhia, P., Kolhe, S.S. and Tripathi, R.S., 1997. Allelopathic effect of white top (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) on chickpea. Legume Res20(2), pp.117-120.

Oudhia, P. and Tripathi, R.S., 1998. Allelopathic effects of Parthenium hysterophorus L. on kodo, mustard and problematic weeds. In Proc. First Int. Conference on Parthenium Management (Vol. 2, pp. 136-139).

Oudhia, P. and Tripathi, R.S., 1999, August. Allelopathic effects of Parthenium hysterophorus, Lantana cámara and Ageratum conyzoides on germination and seedling vigour of wheat and selected Rabi weeds. InAbstracts II world congress on Allelopathy Critical Analysis and future Prospects. Edited by AU Malik Lake head University, Ontaria, Canada (Vol. 142).

Oudhia, P., 1999. Studies on allelopathy and medicinal weeds in chickpea fields. International Chickpea and Pigeonpea Newsletter6, pp.29-33.

Oudhia, P., Tripathi, R.S., Choubey, N.K. and Lal, B., 2000. Parthenium hysterophorus: a curse for the bio-diversity of Chhattisgarh plains of MP.Crop Research (Hisar)19(2), pp.221-224.

Oudhia, P., 2000. Allelopathic effects of Parthenium hysterophorus and Ageratum conyzoides on wheat var. Sujata. Crop Research (Hisar)20(3), pp.563-566.

Oudhia, P., 2000. Allelopathic effects of some obnoxious weeds on germination of soybean. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology5(3), pp.295-296.

Oudhia, P., 2000. Toxic effects of Parthenium leaf extracts on Aspidomorpha miliaris F. and Zonabris pustulata Thunb. Insect Environment,5(4).

Oudhia, P., 2000. Positive (inhibitory) allelopathic effects of Parthenium leaves on germination and seedling vigour of sunflower. Crop Research (Hisar)20(3), pp.560-562.

Oudhia, P., 2000. Parthenium hysterophorus: a new weed in upland rice fields of the Chhattisgarh Plains (India). International Rice Research Notes,25(1).

Oudhia, P., 2000. Positive (inhibitory) allelopathic effects of some obnoxious weeds on germination and seedling vigour of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.).Research on crops1(1), pp.116-118.

Oudhia, P., 2000. Effects of leaf extracts on metallic coloured tortoise beetle Aspidomorpha miliaris F. Insect Environment5(4).

Oudhia, P. and Tripathi, R.S., 2000. Allelopathic effects of an obnoxious weed Parthenium hysterophorus L. on germination and seedling vigour of rice var. Mahamaya. Research on Crops1(1), pp.111-115.

Oudhia, P., 2001. Phyto-sociological studies of rainy season wasteland weeds with special reference to Parthenium hysterophorus L. Raipur (India) district. Asian J. Microbiol. Biotech. Environ. Sci3(1-2), pp.89-92.

Oudhia, P., 2001. Medicinal uses of Congress weed Parthenium hysterophorus L.: A Review. ECOLOGY ENVIRONMENT AND CONSERVATION7, pp.175-177.

Oudhia, P., 2001. Germination and seedling vigour of wheat as affected by Allelopathy of some obnoxious weeds. Agricultural Science Digest21(4), pp.275-276.

Oudhia, P., 2001. Allelopathic Effects of Leachates and Extracts of Different Parts of an Obnoxious Weed Parthenium hysterophorus L. on Germination and Seedling Vigour of Selected Crops. ECOLOGY ENVIRONMENT AND CONSERVATION7, pp.427-434.

Oudhia, P., Pandey, N. and Tripathi, R.S., 2002. Allelopathic effects of weeds on germination and seedling vigor of hybrid rice. International Rice Research Notes24(2).

Oudhia, P., Pandey, N. and Tripathi, R.S., 2002. Allelopathic effects of weeds on germination and seedling vigor of hybrid rice. International Rice Research Notes24(2).

 

YouTube Films on Parthenium by Pankaj Oudhia

Allergy weed Parthenium in State Capitals of India. Part-425 © Pankaj Oudhia

'Save Tiger' from Parthenium in Achanakmar Wildlife Sanctuary: Pankaj Oudhia's Surveys 2012

Folk Rice Formulations for Parthenium Allergy: Pankaj Oudhia's Medicinal Plant Database

Fighting with Parthenium allergy through indigenous knowledge. Part-14 © Pankaj Oudhia

Only Argemone and Amaranthus are allowed in Parthenium Kingdom. © Pankaj Oudhia

Everything Yellow is not Gold but White must be Parthenium. © Pankaj Oudhia

Omnipresent and Omnipotent Parthenium in summer. Part-4 © Pankaj Oudhia

Status of Mealybug infestation on Parthenium in India. Part-62 © Pankaj Oudhia

Status of Mealybug infestation on Parthenium in India. Part-56 © Pankaj Oudhia

Status of Mealybug infestation on Parthenium in India. Part-69 © Pankaj Oudhia

Fighting with Parthenium allergy through indigenous knowledge. Part-10 © Pankaj Oudhia

Omnipresent and Omnipotent Parthenium in summer. Part-6 © Pankaj Oudhia

Omnipresent and Omnipotent Parthenium in summer. Part-1 © Pankaj Oudhia

Omnipresent and Omnipotent Parthenium in summer. Part-2 © Pankaj Oudhia

Medicinal Rice B4 Formulations for Parthenium Toxicity: Pankaj Oudhia's Medicinal Plant Database

Parthenium hysterophorus Cultivation (?) © Pankaj Oudhia

Hyptis is tough competitor of Parthenium even in summer. © Pankaj Oudhia

Medicinal Rice B4 Formulations for Allergy to Parthenium: Pankaj Oudhia's Medicinal Plant Database

Status of Mealybug infestation on Parthenium in India. Part-66 © Pankaj Oudhia

Allergy weed Parthenium in State Capitals of India. Part-424 © Pankaj Oudhia

Roadside population of Gajar Ghas (Parthenium hysterophorus). Part-1 © Pankaj Oudhia

Fighting with Parthenium allergy through indigenous knowledge. Part-12 © Pankaj Oudhia

Indigenous herbs used in Parthenium-Zygogramma experiments. Part-129 © Pankaj Oudhia

Improvement of Parthenium Allergy Formulations-1802: Pankaj Oudhia's Research Documents

Smother Enemies to Death in Parthenium way. Part-1 © Pankaj Oudhia

Weed interactions in forest: Parthenium and Argemone. Part-3 © Pankaj Oudhia

Status of Mealybug infestation on Parthenium in India. Part-68 © Pankaj Oudhia

Allergy Weed Parthenium in Manikchauri Village. © Pankaj Oudhia

Status of Mealybug infestation on Parthenium in India. Part-59 © Pankaj Oudhia

Parthenium dispersed like wildfire in Baruka village and forest nearby. © Pankaj Oudhia

Parthenium infestation in Sloth Bear (Ursus ursinus) territory. © Pankaj Oudhia

Fighting with Parthenium allergy through indigenous knowledge. Part-13 © Pankaj Oudhia

Status of Mealybug infestation on Parthenium in India. Part-65 © Pankaj Oudhia

Omnipresent and Omnipotent Parthenium in summer. Part-5 © Pankaj Oudhia

Status of Mealybug infestation on Parthenium in India. Part-64 © Pankaj Oudhia

Indigenous herbs used in Parthenium-Zygogramma experiments. Part-120 © Pankaj Oudhia

Indigenous herbs used in Parthenium-Zygogramma experiments. Part-137 © Pankaj Oudhia

Status of Mealybug infestation on Parthenium in India. Part-57 © Pankaj Oudhia

Status of Mealybug infestation on Parthenium in India. Part-67 © Pankaj Oudhia

Improvement of Parthenium Allergy Formulations-1801: Pankaj Oudhia's Research Documents

Weed interactions in forest: Alternanthera, Amaranthus and Parthenium. Part-2 © Pankaj Oudhia

Status of Mealybug infestation on Parthenium in India. Part-61 © Pankaj Oudhia

Sunday Cricket with Parthenium weed. © Pankaj Oudhia

Status of Mealybug infestation on Parthenium in India. Part-63 © Pankaj Oudhia

Medicinal Rice B4 based Formulats for Parthenium Allergy: Pankaj Oudhia's Medicinal Plant Database

Parthenium-Heliotropium Friendship exists in forest also. © Pankaj Oudhia

Parthenium likes Water. © Pankaj Oudhia

Medicinal Rice P5 based Formuls for Parthenium Allergy: Pankaj Oudhia's Medicinal Plant Database

Status of Mealybug infestation on Parthenium in India. Part-58 © Pankaj Oudhia

Medicinal Rice P5 based Formuls for Allergy to Parthenium: Pankaj Oudhia's Medicinal Plant Database

Medicinal Rice P5M Formulations for Parthenium Excess: Pankaj Oudhia's Medicinal Plant Database

Weed interactions in forest: Parthenium and Amaranthus. Part-1 © Pankaj Oudhia

Parthenium in Public Garden. © Pankaj Oudhia

Parthenium and Heliotropium are Good Friends. © Pankaj Oudhia

Medicinal Rice P5 Formulations for Parthenium Overdose: Pankaj Oudhia's Medicinal Plant Database

Summer rains helped Parthenium to germinate and spread in forest. © Pankaj Oudhia

Parthenium source in Forest Village. © Pankaj Oudhia

Allergy weed Parthenium in State Capitals of India. Part-421 © Pankaj Oudhia

Medicinal Rice P5 based Formuls for Parthenium Toxicity: Pankaj Oudhia's Medicinal Plant Database

Mango Tree Shade is not a limiting factor in Parthenium growth. © Pankaj Oudhia

Impact of Parthenium on wild animals in Indian Zoos. Part-514 © Pankaj Oudhia

Impact of Parthenium on wild animals in Indian Zoos. Part-516 © Pankaj Oudhia

Pongamia Tree Shade is not a limiting factor in Parthenium growth. © Pankaj Oudhia

Allelopathic treatment of Parthenium for Medicinal Use. Part-1

Impact of Parthenium on wild animals in Indian Zoos. Part-515 © Pankaj Oudhia

Important factors affecting public health in Bhilai, India. Part-25 © Pankaj Oudhia

Pankaj Oudhia’s talk on Parthenium hysterophrous recorded during his Jabalpur visit.

https://archive.org/details/PankajOudhiaOnParthenium

Encyclopedia of Tribal Medicines by Pankaj Oudhia

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Suggested Citation

Oudhia, Pankaj (2015). Pankaj Oudhia’s Series on Impact of Parthenium on Biodiversity: 1. Punarnava (Boerhavia diffusa Linn.). www.pankajoudhia.com

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